In the present study, 26 elderly subjects were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups, that is, orange (low in antioxidant capacity) and pomegranate (high in antioxidant capacity) groups, and 250 mL of juice was consumed daily for 4 weeks. Changes in plasma antioxidant capacity, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and carbonyls, and the degree of DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells were measured. Urine samples were collected for determination of 8-hydroxy-2′- deoxyguanosine content. Increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma carbonyl content were demonstrated after daily consumption of pomegranate juice. In comparison, orange juice consumption presented a less significant effect on antioxidant function in elderly subjects. It is concluded that daily consumption of pomegranate juices is potentially better than orange juice in improving antioxidant function in the elderly. Because the plasma ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione contents did not differ significantly between the 2 groups in this study, the phenolics may be the functional components contained in pomegranate juice that accounted for the observations.
Anti typhoid properties of aqueous methanol leaves extract of Albizia ferruginea (musase) was investigated in the present study. The phytochemical screening of the aqueous methanol leave extract of Albizia ferruginea revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinines, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoid, saponin, tannin and terpens. The leave extract of Albizia ferruginea does not possess acute toxicity effect on animal (mice) with a dose of (LD50) 5000mg/kg. The plant extract produced inhibitory activities against Salmonella typhi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1000μg/ml. The plant extract is effective as anti typhoid agent against Salmonella typhi on mice infected with typhoid parasites as shown by widal test.
The outer leaflet of Gram-negative bacterial membrane contains a great amount of lipopolysaccharides, also known as endotoxins, which play a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and ultimately septic shock. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is potent inducer of acute sepsis or chronic inflammation. Sepsis can strike anyone, but is most likely to develop from infection associated with events such as pneumonia, trauma, surgery, and burns, or serious illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. In fact, people whose deaths are ascribed to complications of cancer, AIDS, or pneumonia, often actually die as a direct result of sepsis. Sepsis involves a complex interaction between bacterial toxins and the host immune system. LPS stimulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 which leads to the formation and release of range of proinflammatory mediators which are essential for the potent immune response. The massive host response to this single bacterial pattern recognition molecule is sufficient to generate diffuse endothelial injury, tissue hypoperfusion, disseminated intravascular coagulation and refractory shock. LPS recognition involves LPS binding protein (LBP), CD14 ending up in TLR4/MD-2/LPS complex. The complex leads to activation of TLR4 and subsequent signaling cascade via two pathways i. e., myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88)-dependent and TRIF-dependent. Here is a brief review of TLR4 signaling and LPS recognition biology with its impact if any on downstream pathways.