International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Biochemistry Research &amp; Review (ISSN: 2231-086X)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biochemistry.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed,&nbsp;open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review) (International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review) Fri, 26 Feb 2021 11:28:35 +0000 OJS 60 GC-MS Analysis of Spondias mombin (Linn) Methanol Leaf Extract <p>The bioactive components of <em>Spondias mombin</em> leaf have been evaluated using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The plant were collected washed, shade dried and milled and the methanol extract of the leaf plant were prepared by soxhlet extract method. The methanol extract were analyzed for the identification of phytochemical compounds presenting the <em>Spondias mombin</em> plant leaf using GC/MS methods. Result of the GC-MS analysis of <em>Spondias mombin</em> leaf extract leads to the identification of 8 compounds. The identification of phytochemicals was based on the Molecular Weight, molecular formula, RT (Retention Time) and peak area % (concentration). These peaks indicated the presence of eight bioactive compounds in the extract. The names, molecular formular, percentage composition and molecular masses of these compounds are shown in Table 1. The 8 bioactive compounds are as follows; 9- oxononanoic acid,3-isopropoxy, 1,1,15,5,5 hexamethyl-3- trimethylsioxytrosiloxane (C<sub>12</sub>H<sub>34</sub>O<sub>4</sub>Si<sub>4</sub>) ,1,4-methanocycloocta(d)pyridazine, 1α4α4aα10α)(C<sub>13</sub>H<sub>2</sub>ON<sub>2</sub>),Hexasiloxane 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11-dodeca methyl,1,4 methanocycloocta (d) pyridazine 1,4,4a,5,6,9,10,10a- octalydro 11,11-dimethyl-(1α,4α4aα10α), Hexasiloxane, 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11 dodecamethyl, 3- isopropoxy-1,1,1,5,5,5 hexamethyl-3-(trimethylsiloxy) trisiloxane C<sub>12</sub>H<sub>34</sub>O<sub>4</sub>Si<sub>4</sub> and 1,1,1,3,5,5,5- Heptamethyltrisiloxane(C<sub>7</sub>H<sub>22</sub>O<sub>2</sub>Si<sub>3</sub>). It is concluded that these bioactive component are known to exhibit medicinal value as well as pharmacological activities.</p> S. C. Okereke, O. V. Ikpeazu, C. J. Nwaogwugwu, A. S. Ezekwe, C. I. Nosiri, P. O. Ukogu, Duru Michael Osita, Akara Emmanuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Larvicidal Efficacy and GC-MS Analysis of Hyptis suaveolens Leaf Extracts against Anopheles Species <p>Mosquitoes are the most important group of insects in terms of public health importance, which transmit serious human diseases. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides to control these mosquitoes causes development of resistance in vector species, and an adverse effect on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. Therefore, the use of active toxic agents from plant extracts as alternative mosquito control strategy cannot be over emphasized, as these are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show target - specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of the aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of <em>H. suaveolens</em> against the fourth instars larvae of <em>Anopheles </em>species. Standard WHO protocols was adopted for the larvicidal bioassay. Larvicidal activity was evaluated at concentrations of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/L. The larval mortality was observed after 24 and 48hours bioassay. The results are mean of three replicates and the mortalities recorded were subjected to chi-square test and probit analysis to determine median lethal concentrations (LC<sub>50</sub>). TheGC-MS analysis ofthe methanolic leaf extract of the plantrevealed the presence of twelve compounds on the chromatogram. Among the major compounds areOleic Acid (33.33%), Octadecanoic acid (13.52%), 1,3-Cyclohexadiene-1-methanol,alpha.,2,6,6-(10.42%), 1,3-Cyclopentanediol, trans (9.60%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (9.01%) and 4-Hepten-3-one, 4-methyl (7.0%).The phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of the plant revealed the presence of Tannins, Terpenoids, Flavonoids, Steroids, Carbohydrates, Cardiac glycoside and resins. The LC<sub>50 </sub>values estimated were 316.22mg/Lfor methanol extract and 323.59 mg/L for aqueous extract. The differences between the two extracts were however not significantly different at P&gt;0.05. The findings also revealed that mortality was concentration dependent and both extracts showed promising larvicidal activity against <em>Anopheles </em>species larvae. Therefore, the crude leaf extract of the plant is recommended to be used as alternative to synthetic larvicides and further research is needed to test the activity of the plant on non-target organisms.</p> Y. D. Dakum, C. N. Amajoh, A. Ombugadu, G. Istifanus, F. Agwom, S. T. Joseph, I. R. Jwanse, P. M. Lapang, S. W. Kopdorah, D. D. Pam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 02 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Diagnostic Value of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinases in Atherosclerosis <p><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Atherosclerosis is a chronic systematic disease where lesion (plaque) develops results in activation of inflammatory reaction that leads to arterial obstruction. Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause for many cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which were estimated with 42 percent of total death in Saudi Arabia while Coronary artery diseases (CAD) accounted for 35 percent of total chronic diseases death in Saudi Arabia by 2008. Risk factors that attribute in progression of atherosclerotic lesion and subsequent complications are smoking, high Low Density Lipoprotein –Cholesterol (LDL-C), high blood pressure, obesity and alcohol.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This study was carried on 20 healthy individuals as a control group, 15 patients with stable angina, 15 patients with recent myocardial infraction (MI) and 15 patient 24-hours post MI. All subjects were males with age 45±65 years and underwent exclusion/inclusion criteria. COX-2, MMPs levels were quantitatively measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There is insignificant differences in both COX-2 and MMP-2 levels among studied groups (P = 0.450 and 0.246 respectively) .On other hand, MMP-9 demonstrate a significant elevation in its level in studied groups (P = 0.014): its level significantly increase in stable angina (31.474 ± 12.188 ng/ml) compared to both control (9.920 ± 0.075 ng/ml) and Post MI groups (16.012 ± 13.852 ng/ml) (P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively) and significantly increase in MI group (26.020 ± 14.792 ng/ml) when compared to both control (P = 0.006) and post MI (P = 0.038) groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We can conclude that both COX-2 and MMP-2 cannot be used as markers for diagnosis of stable angina or MI. While MMP-9 as it showed significant elevation in its level in MI and then decrease in post MI, it can be considered as a good marker for confirming the diagnosis of MI and post MI stage.</p> Alaa Etaiwi, Enayat Hashem, Mohammed Ajabnoor, Nabil Al–Ama ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Interferon-γ, Interleukin 1-β and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α levels and Their Association with Lipid and Glycaemic Profiles in Diabetic Mice <p>The cytokines IFN-γ, interleukin IL-1β, and TNF-α each up regulate the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and are therefore considered as inflammatory markers. The present study aimed to measure the serum levels of IFN-γ, interleukin IL-1β, and TNF-α in mice after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin and to correlate their levels to lipid and glycaemic profiles. The study included 40 Swiss Albino mice (20 males and 20 females), half of each male and female groups were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After 48 hours, the serum levels of INF-γ, IL1-β as well as TNF-α were measured with ELISA and their levels were correlated to lipid and glycaemic profiles. The levels of the cytokines, IFN-γ, IL1-β and TNF-α were measured and correlated to lipid profile, blood glucose and insulin. The serum levels of the three studied cytokines, IFN-γ, IL 1-β and TNF-α were statistically significantly higher among diabetic mice compared to the control group. Diabetic male mice (M-STZ mice) group showed significantly higher lipid profile compared to the control group (M-control). Cholesterol level was significantly higher among female control (F-control) compared to the M-control group. Cholesterol level was significantly higher among diabetic female mice (F-STZ mice) compared to the F-Control group. Regarding IFN-γ, IL 1-β and TNF-α levels, there were significant linear correlations with the glycemic profile (Glucose, insulin) reflected as positive correlation with blood glucose level and negative correlation with insulin level.</p> Ahmed J. Milebary, Mohamed A. Ajabnoor, Khalid H. Bakheit ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000