International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review <p><strong>International Journal of Biochemistry Research &amp; Review (ISSN: 2231-086X)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biochemistry. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> en-US (International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review) (International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review) Thu, 28 Jul 2022 10:31:50 +0000 OJS 60 Hepatocellular Recovery of Chronic Paraquat Induced Liver Toxicity in Vitamin E and C Treated Male Wistar Rats <p>Paraquat is an organic compound also known as methyl viologen, a chemical herbicide or weed killer with highly toxic effect on ingestion or exposure. Vitamin E and C are powerful antioxidants that act as initial responder against oxygen reactive species called free radicals which attack and destroy the tissues. The aim of this study was to determine a short term therapeutic effect of vitamin E and C combination on liver enzymes parameters of paraquat induced liver toxicity in male albino rats. 200 male albino rats were used for the study. The 200 rats were divided into four main groups (A, B, C, D) consisting of 50 rats in each group. The Groups were further divided into two subgroups having 25 rats in each subgroup. “A” group was not induced with paraquat while “B”, ‘C” and “D” groups were induced with increasing dose of 0.02g, 0.04g and 0.06g of paraquat respectively. “A” group had two subgroups; “Ao” and “A<sub>VEC</sub>” which represented the sub-group not treated with Vit E and the subgroup treated with Vit E (500mg) respectively. This also applied to group “B”, “C” and “D” paraquat was administered every forth night followed by treatment with the vitamins for one month. Blood samples were collected and analysed for liver function (SGOT, SGPT, ALT And GGT). There was a significant increase in the level of the liver enzymes among the “Ao”, “Bo”, “Co” and “Do”, p-value&lt;0.05 and also among the “A<sub>VEC</sub>”, “B<sub>VEC</sub>”, “C<sub>VEC</sub>” and “D<sub>VEC</sub>”, p-value&lt;0.05. The result also showed that there were significant differences in intra-group comparison in all the liver enzyme parameters, p-value&lt;0.05 while there was no significant difference among the A<sub>O</sub> and A<sub>VEC</sub> subgroups for all parameters. This study has shown that vitamin E and C combination has a therapeutic effect in male albino rats on one month of weekly treatment. Therefore, a weekly treatment with Vit E and C may treat liver disease toxicity associated with paraquat toxicity in rats.</p> Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo, Adaobi Ifeoma Ekwempu, Ngozi Brisibe, Joel Burabar Konne, Clement Ugochukwu Nyenke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bisphenol A Disrupt Endogenous Estrone, Estriol and Estradiol Levels in Female Albino Wistar Rats <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is a contaminant with increasing exposure and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on cells The general population is potentially exposed to many chemicals that can affect the endocrine system. These substances are called endocrine disruptors (EDs), and among them Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used and well-studied. This study investigates the possibility of blood serum endogenous estrogens levels perturbations at prevailing low exposure rates of BPA in albino Wistar rats. Eleven experimental groups each containing five (10) female rats were administered graded doses of BPA/kg body weight (bw)/day. The first control group was given water. Animals blood were collected weekly for twelve weeks and serum sample specimens analyzed by routine diagnostic procedures for estrogens assay using Chemwell Chemical Analyzer. Significantly increased concentrations of estrone and estradiol were observed, alongside significant decreased estriol concentrations, at all concentrations of BPA exposure at different time suggesting that bisphenol A upsets endogenous esrogens and causes perturbation of estradiol concentrations. These findings point to the overall disruption of estrogen metabolism.</p> Chinenye E. Oguazu, Francis C. Ezeonu, M. O. Enemali, Kingsley I. Ubaoji ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 30 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Studies of Phytochemicals and In vitro Radical Scavenging Potentials of Six Different Wild Fruits Consumed in South-Eastern Nigeria <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The study was carried out in order to document the phytochemical contents and radical scavenging capacities of different wild fruits consumed in south eastern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Phytochemical screening and <em>in-vitro</em> antioxidant studies were carried out using standard method.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The results of quantitative phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, oxalate and cardiac glycosides in varying concentrations. The in <em>vitro</em> antioxidant study showed that African elemi and African velvet tamarind with EC<sub>50 </sub>1.68 ± 0.03 and 1.81 ± 0.01 µg/ml respectively scavenged DPPH radical more than other extracts compared to ascorbic acid EC<sub>50 </sub>1.25 ± 0.02 while wild mango (EC<sub>50</sub> 0.98 ± 0.01 μg/ml), pepper fruits (EC<sub>50</sub> 1.75 ± 0.02 μg/ml) and date fruit (EC<sub>50</sub> 1.88 ± 0.01 μg/ml) scavenged hydroxyl radical more than other extracts used in this study. All the extract showed a concentration dependency in reducing ferric iron to ferrous ion, also date fruit (0.11 ± 0.00 μg/ml) had more of the total antioxidant compounds in this study compared to ascorbic acid (0.22 ± 0.01μg/ml).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The high quantity of phytochemicals and radical scavenging capacity of the wild fruits shows their importance in nutrition; therefore wild fruits should be included in our daily diet to improve the quality and nutritional values of food.</p> Maryann Chinenye Maduako, Kizito Ifeanyi Amaefule, Jonathan Chinenye Ifemeje ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000