International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Biochemistry Research &amp; Review (ISSN: 2231-086X)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biochemistry.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed,&nbsp;open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 2231-086X Protective Effects of Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts of Secamone afzelii (Asclepiadaceae) Leaves on Liver Transaminases, Serum Vitamin D and Zinc Levels against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)- Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This study was carried out to evaluate effect of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Secamone afzelii leaves on Liver transaminases, serum vitamin D and Zinc levels in hepatotocixity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) in rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The experiment was performed on 7 groups of 6 rats by the method of Mekky and collaborators. Rats were pre-treated with aqueous, hydroethanolic extracts Secamone afzelii (100 and 200 mg/kg) and Silymarin (SIL) an hepatoprotective reference prior to CCl<sub>4</sub>. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of Carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) in rats. Hepatotoxicity implied a significant rise of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) by hepatocyte alteration rate. The parameters evaluated in the study were alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), vitamin D and Zinc in serum. Vitamin D and Zinc levels in serum were respectively determined by HPLC analysis and Atomic absorption method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Carbon tetrachloride injection to rats every 2 days showed a significant rise of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) and a significant lowering of vitamin D and zinc levels in serum compared to normal. However, pre-treatments with aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Secamone afzelii caused a significant decrease of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) and restored vitamin D and zinc levels in serum of animals (P &lt; 0.001 and P &lt; 0.01) compared to rats treated with CCl<sub>4</sub> only (Negative control). Moreover, hydroethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) and Silymarin both reduced very well carbon tetrachloride effects by protecting Liver.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study reveals that Secamone afzelii leaves extracts (aqueous and hydroethanolic) possess protective properties of the Liver. It also shows a significant association between low serum vitamin D and zinc levels and hepatotoxicity. The most active extract is Hydroethanolic extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg which can be used for preventives purposes.</p> Koné Djoudori Serge Gnahoue Goueh Djyh Bernard Nazaire Bamba Abou Yapi Houphouet Félix ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 1 9 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830207 In silico Anti-malaria Activity of Quinolone Compounds against Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase (pfDHFR) <p>Chemotherapy remains the kernel of malaria control and the available antimalarial drugs are not only expensive but also parade heterogeneous levels of toxicity and may invoke poor compliance in patients. The present study focuses on the screening of quinolone compounds against <em>Plasmodium falciparum </em>dihydrofolate reductase (pfDHFR) for anti-malarial potential using Glide (Schrodinger maestro 2017-1). Computational tool using Glide was employed to investigate the therapeutic relevance of six (6) quinolone derivatives retrieved from PUBCHEM&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; via molecular docking against pfDHFR retrieved from protein data base. The results showed that, Lascufloxacin and moxifloxacin bind with higher affinity and lower free energy with catalytic domain of pfDHFR with glide score of -6.597 and -5.653 respectively compared to standard ligand (quinine) with glide score of -3.728. Lascufloxacin interacted with amino acid residue of the catalytic domain (SER 511, ARG 510, GLU 382) as evaluated by energy decomposition per residue lascufloxacin-pfDHFRcomplex. The results from this investigation, thus proposed quinolone derivatives as hit lead drug candidates which may be consider as potential inhibitor of pfDHFR.</p> Toheeb A. Balogun Damilola A. Omoboyowa Oluwatosin A. Saibu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 17 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830208 Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, 15-Lipoxygenase and Lipid Peroxidase Inhibitory Effects of two Medicinal Plants from Burkina Faso: Acacia macrostachya Reich. Ex Benth (Mimosaceae) and Lepidagathis anobrya NEES (Acanthaceae) <p><em>Acacia macrostachya</em> (Mimosaceae) and <em>Lepidagathis anobrya (</em>Acanthaceae<em>) </em>are two medicinal plants used in Burkina Faso folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to assess the phenolic content, the antioxidant, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidaseinhibitory effects of <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> and<em> Lepidagathis anobrya</em>.The experimental results revealed that <em>Acacia mascrostachya</em> and <em>Lepidagathis anobrya</em> have respective total phenolic contents&nbsp; varies from 240.13 ± 0.44 and 30.88 ± 0.30 mg GAE / 100 mg extract; and total flavonoids contents of 2.30 ± 0.002 and 4.24 ± 0.28 QE / 100 mg of extract. The two plants demonstrated anti-free radicals (ABTS) capacities of 0.06 and 0.14 TEAC while the FRAP reducing power of 2.24 ± 0.08 and 4.43 ± 0.12 mmol AAE per 100 mg respectively. <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> and <em>Lepidagathis anobrya</em> showed significant inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation with the inhibition percentage values of 55.45 ± 1.48 and 66.36 ± 0.65 respectively. In the 15-lipoxygenase inhibition, <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> demonstrated very important inhibitory effect with the IC<sub>50</sub> value of 1.32 ± 0.16 while the effect of <em>Lepidagathis anobrya</em> is very moderate.The results of this work demonstrated the interest of <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> and <em>Lepidagathis anobrya</em> in the management of inflammatory diseases.</p> Adjaratou C. Coulibaly W. L. M. Esther B. Kabré Mariam N. Traoré Tata K. Traoré Nouhoun Nignan Noufou Ouédraogo Martin Kiendrebeogo Richard W. Sawadogo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 18 25 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830209 Characterisation and Hypolipidaemic Activity of Phenylquinoline, and Narceine Isolated from Ficus polita Leaf <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate hypolipidaemic potentials of column chromatography fractions (F1 to F6) of the chloroform leaf extract of <em>Ficus polita</em> and to detect the bioactive compounds present in the most active fraction using spectroscopic techniques.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Fourty-five (45) wistar rats were grouped into nine groups of five rats each: normal control, hyperlipidaemic control, hyperlipidaemic administered with standard drug control/ atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight), and hyperlipidaemic administered groups administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of column chromatography fractions (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6) for a period of two weeks.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong>&nbsp; Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, from May 2018 to April 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Chloroform leaf extract of <em>F. polita</em> was fractionated by using column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were pooled, based on their retention factor (R<sub>f</sub>), into six (6) fractions by using analytical thin layer chromatography. The resulting six (6) fractions were screened for hypolipidaemic activity. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were determined. The rats treated with the best fraction in terms hypolipidaemic activity (fraction 3) were screened for serum HMG Co A reductase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) activities, as well as troponin I level. Oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were determined in the heart tissue homogenate of the rats treated with fraction 3.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fraction 3 treated hyperlipidaemic group showed significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in the levels of serum TC, TG, and LDL, but significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in the level of serum HDL. Fraction 3 (F3) treated hyperlipidaemic groups showed significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in the activity of serum LDH and the level of troponin I, but significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in the activity of serum HMG Co A reductase. After high fat diet administration, the level of heart tissue antioxidant markers such as GSH, SOD and catalase were decreased whereas the level of heart tissue MDA was elevated. The level of these antioxidant markers were brought to normalcy by fraction 3 (F3). Histological studies of the heart corroborated the biochemical findings, and treatment with fraction 3 (F3) was found to be effective in restoring dietary-induced myocardiac toxicity in rats. FTIR and GCMS analyses were carried out for the detection of bioactive compound(s) in fraction 3 (F3), and the result revealed the presence of "8-methoxy-4-phenylquinoline, and narceine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that; the hypolipidaemic property of the leaf of <em>F. polita </em>is mediated by the bioactive compounds "8-methoxy-4-phenylquinoline, and narceine." via their antioxidant properties.</p> A. Nasir M. S. Sule A. J. Alhassan M. K. Atiku Y. Y. Muhammad A. Idi I. U. Muhammad A. I. Yaradua K. I. Matazu M. B. Isah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 42 54 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830211 The Potential Use of Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Saliva and Urine as Biological Samples for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong><strong>: </strong>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. 80% of all dementia is due to AD. Diagnosis of AD is a difficult task, as the accurate diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of brain autopsy samples. Diagnosis of AD in living individuals can be aided by the establishment of the clinical criteria, positron emission tomography (PET) examination, and biomarkers. The study of biomarkers for diagnosis of AD could help clinicians to evaluate individuals at risk, and confirm the occurrence as well as the progression of AD in a non-invasive manner. High sensitivity and high specificity of the used markers are mandatory criteria for these biomarkers to trusted for AD diagnosis and prognosis. So, this review article aims to focus on the potential use of body fluids as a source of the biomarkers that are used for investigating patients with AD.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> In the current study, we reviewed scientific articles that discuss AD pathogenesis and diagnosis of Google Scholar database, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, and MedlinePlus with no time limitation. Moreover, we discussed the use of recently discovered biomarkers that are detected in blood, CSF, saliva, and urine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the current review, it could be concluded that in addition to the blood and cerebrospinal fluid as common biological samples for the diagnosis of AD, saliva and urine are useful potential biological samples. Moreover, both are noninvasive samples that give them priority to be used.</p> Adnan Awn Algarni Abdulhadi I. Bima Ayman Z. Elsamanoudy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 26 41 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830210