International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Biochemistry Research &amp; Review (ISSN: 2231-086X)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biochemistry.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed,&nbsp;open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 2231-086X Protective Effects of Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts of Secamone afzelii (Asclepiadaceae) Leaves on Liver Transaminases, Serum Vitamin D and Zinc Levels against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)- Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This study was carried out to evaluate effect of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Secamone afzelii leaves on Liver transaminases, serum vitamin D and Zinc levels in hepatotocixity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) in rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The experiment was performed on 7 groups of 6 rats by the method of Mekky and collaborators. Rats were pre-treated with aqueous, hydroethanolic extracts Secamone afzelii (100 and 200 mg/kg) and Silymarin (SIL) an hepatoprotective reference prior to CCl<sub>4</sub>. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of Carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) in rats. Hepatotoxicity implied a significant rise of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) by hepatocyte alteration rate. The parameters evaluated in the study were alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), vitamin D and Zinc in serum. Vitamin D and Zinc levels in serum were respectively determined by HPLC analysis and Atomic absorption method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Carbon tetrachloride injection to rats every 2 days showed a significant rise of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) and a significant lowering of vitamin D and zinc levels in serum compared to normal. However, pre-treatments with aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Secamone afzelii caused a significant decrease of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) and restored vitamin D and zinc levels in serum of animals (P &lt; 0.001 and P &lt; 0.01) compared to rats treated with CCl<sub>4</sub> only (Negative control). Moreover, hydroethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) and Silymarin both reduced very well carbon tetrachloride effects by protecting Liver.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study reveals that Secamone afzelii leaves extracts (aqueous and hydroethanolic) possess protective properties of the Liver. It also shows a significant association between low serum vitamin D and zinc levels and hepatotoxicity. The most active extract is Hydroethanolic extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg which can be used for preventives purposes.</p> Koné Djoudori Serge Gnahoue Goueh Djyh Bernard Nazaire Bamba Abou Yapi Houphouet Félix ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 1 9 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830207 In silico Anti-malaria Activity of Quinolone Compounds against Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase (pfDHFR) <p>Chemotherapy remains the kernel of malaria control and the available antimalarial drugs are not only expensive but also parade heterogeneous levels of toxicity and may invoke poor compliance in patients. The present study focuses on the screening of quinolone compounds against <em>Plasmodium falciparum </em>dihydrofolate reductase (pfDHFR) for anti-malarial potential using Glide (Schrodinger maestro 2017-1). Computational tool using Glide was employed to investigate the therapeutic relevance of six (6) quinolone derivatives retrieved from PUBCHEM&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; via molecular docking against pfDHFR retrieved from protein data base. The results showed that, Lascufloxacin and moxifloxacin bind with higher affinity and lower free energy with catalytic domain of pfDHFR with glide score of -6.597 and -5.653 respectively compared to standard ligand (quinine) with glide score of -3.728. Lascufloxacin interacted with amino acid residue of the catalytic domain (SER 511, ARG 510, GLU 382) as evaluated by energy decomposition per residue lascufloxacin-pfDHFRcomplex. The results from this investigation, thus proposed quinolone derivatives as hit lead drug candidates which may be consider as potential inhibitor of pfDHFR.</p> Toheeb A. Balogun Damilola A. Omoboyowa Oluwatosin A. Saibu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 10 17 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830208 Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, 15-Lipoxygenase and Lipid Peroxidase Inhibitory Effects of two Medicinal Plants from Burkina Faso: Acacia macrostachya Reich. Ex Benth (Mimosaceae) and Lepidagathis anobrya NEES (Acanthaceae) <p><em>Acacia macrostachya</em> (Mimosaceae) and <em>Lepidagathis anobrya (</em>Acanthaceae<em>) </em>are two medicinal plants used in Burkina Faso folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to assess the phenolic content, the antioxidant, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidaseinhibitory effects of <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> and<em> Lepidagathis anobrya</em>.The experimental results revealed that <em>Acacia mascrostachya</em> and <em>Lepidagathis anobrya</em> have respective total phenolic contents&nbsp; varies from 240.13 ± 0.44 and 30.88 ± 0.30 mg GAE / 100 mg extract; and total flavonoids contents of 2.30 ± 0.002 and 4.24 ± 0.28 QE / 100 mg of extract. The two plants demonstrated anti-free radicals (ABTS) capacities of 0.06 and 0.14 TEAC while the FRAP reducing power of 2.24 ± 0.08 and 4.43 ± 0.12 mmol AAE per 100 mg respectively. <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> and <em>Lepidagathis anobrya</em> showed significant inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation with the inhibition percentage values of 55.45 ± 1.48 and 66.36 ± 0.65 respectively. In the 15-lipoxygenase inhibition, <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> demonstrated very important inhibitory effect with the IC<sub>50</sub> value of 1.32 ± 0.16 while the effect of <em>Lepidagathis anobrya</em> is very moderate.The results of this work demonstrated the interest of <em>Acacia macrostachya</em> and <em>Lepidagathis anobrya</em> in the management of inflammatory diseases.</p> Adjaratou C. Coulibaly W. L. M. Esther B. Kabré Mariam N. Traoré Tata K. Traoré Nouhoun Nignan Noufou Ouédraogo Martin Kiendrebeogo Richard W. Sawadogo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 18 25 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830209 Characterisation and Hypolipidaemic Activity of Phenylquinoline, and Narceine Isolated from Ficus polita Leaf <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate hypolipidaemic potentials of column chromatography fractions (F1 to F6) of the chloroform leaf extract of <em>Ficus polita</em> and to detect the bioactive compounds present in the most active fraction using spectroscopic techniques.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Fourty-five (45) wistar rats were grouped into nine groups of five rats each: normal control, hyperlipidaemic control, hyperlipidaemic administered with standard drug control/ atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight), and hyperlipidaemic administered groups administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of column chromatography fractions (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6) for a period of two weeks.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong>&nbsp; Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, from May 2018 to April 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Chloroform leaf extract of <em>F. polita</em> was fractionated by using column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were pooled, based on their retention factor (R<sub>f</sub>), into six (6) fractions by using analytical thin layer chromatography. The resulting six (6) fractions were screened for hypolipidaemic activity. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were determined. The rats treated with the best fraction in terms hypolipidaemic activity (fraction 3) were screened for serum HMG Co A reductase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) activities, as well as troponin I level. Oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were determined in the heart tissue homogenate of the rats treated with fraction 3.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fraction 3 treated hyperlipidaemic group showed significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in the levels of serum TC, TG, and LDL, but significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in the level of serum HDL. Fraction 3 (F3) treated hyperlipidaemic groups showed significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in the activity of serum LDH and the level of troponin I, but significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in the activity of serum HMG Co A reductase. After high fat diet administration, the level of heart tissue antioxidant markers such as GSH, SOD and catalase were decreased whereas the level of heart tissue MDA was elevated. The level of these antioxidant markers were brought to normalcy by fraction 3 (F3). Histological studies of the heart corroborated the biochemical findings, and treatment with fraction 3 (F3) was found to be effective in restoring dietary-induced myocardiac toxicity in rats. FTIR and GCMS analyses were carried out for the detection of bioactive compound(s) in fraction 3 (F3), and the result revealed the presence of "8-methoxy-4-phenylquinoline, and narceine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that; the hypolipidaemic property of the leaf of <em>F. polita </em>is mediated by the bioactive compounds "8-methoxy-4-phenylquinoline, and narceine." via their antioxidant properties.</p> A. Nasir M. S. Sule A. J. Alhassan M. K. Atiku Y. Y. Muhammad A. Idi I. U. Muhammad A. I. Yaradua K. I. Matazu M. B. Isah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 42 54 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830211 The Staining Interactions of Aqueous Extract of Skin Allium cepa (Red Onion) on Some Selected Histological Tissues <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Histological stains are biological dyes which colour tissue in order to aid optical differentiation of tissue component. Dyes are coloured substance which impact colour for material such as textile, cosmetic, food, drugs, rubber plastics, hair, fur and tissues. There are two types of dyes namely; natural dyes and synthetic dyes. <em>Allium cepa</em> is an imperative, evergreen plant, which belongs to the family Amaryllidaceace commonly called bulb onion.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This research work aimed at evaluating the staining capability of onion extract as counter stain when haematoxylin was used as primary stain.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Tissue blocks sections of liver and kidney organs were made from the Wistar rat. Serial sections labelled A to M were made from each block and stained with Harris haematoxylin. Section A was counterstained with eosin, as control. Different preparations of extracts of the onion skin were used to counter stain sections of kidney and liver tissues. Group B to Mwere kidney and liver tissues stained as follows: B, E, H and K (5% aqueous and ethanolic extract with ferric chloride, 5% aqueous and ethanolic extract with potassium aluminium alum, and 5% aqueous and ethanolic extract without mordant, for 10 and 20 minutes). C, D, F, G, I, J, L and M (5% aqueous and ethanolic extract with ferric chloride, 5% aqueous and ethanolic extract with potassium aluminium alum and 5% aqueous and ethanolic extract without mordant for 10 and 20 minutes).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The skin extract of <em>Allium cepa</em> stained the cytoplasm of cells and connective tissues in shades of reddish brown to yellowish brown. The study established the cytoplasmic counter-staining ability of the extract of <em>Allium cepa</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is therefore suggested that onion skin extract solution can be substituted for eosin due to its domestic availability, ease of preparation and above all, its good cytoplasm contrast with the nuclear stain.</p> M. O. Mohammed A. A. Hali O. O. Okechi A. T. Muhammad R. I. Tsamiya U. Abubakar I. Mohammed A. Umar S. M. Sani M. K. Dallatu J. M. Bunza H. Kabir H. M. Tambuwal A. Slisu B. A. Bello F. A. Dogondaji N. Okorie S. Y. Ma’aruf D. Isah A. A. Ngaski N. A. Idris A. S. Ajayi M. Isah M. Sirajo A. Abdulazeez H. Abullahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-20 2020-08-20 55 64 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830212 The Proximate Composition and Anti-nutritive Content of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Leaves <p>The nutritional composition, mineral content as well as anti-nutritional of Tree spinach (<em>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius</em>) leaves were investigated using standard methods. The results of the investigation showed the presence of moisture to be 5.64±0.30%, ash- 9.27±0.16%, crude protein- 8.43±0.34%, crude lipid- 4.43±0.16%, crude fibre- 16.73±0.20%, carbohydrate- 55.50% and calorific value- 276.04%. The Mineral elements determined were calcium- 1.48±0.12 mg/100 g, phosphorus- 0.18±0.03 mg/100 g. Compounds or substances which acts to reduce nutrients intake, intake digestion, absorption and utilization and may cause adverse effects are referred to as anti-nutrients or anti-nutritional factors. The anti-nutritive content of <em>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius</em> was classified into three categories; fresh leaves, blanched leaves and cooked leaves which decreased significantly. The anti-nutritional content includes; oxalate- which decreased from 62.71±0.21 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 40.07±0.09 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 30.04±0.05 mg/100 g in cooked leaves. Phytate- which decreased from 77.17±1.84 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 62.02±0.16 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 28.64±0.88 mg/100 g in cooked leaves. Hydrogen cyanide- decreased significantly from 171.22±0.44 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 113.00±0.08 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 0.00<sup>ab</sup> in cooked leaves. Boiling increased the saponin content to 220.30±0.47 mg/100 g in cooked leaves from 218.50±0.50 mg/100 g in fresh leaves and 218.50±0.50 mg/100 g in blanched leaves. Tannins- decreased significantly from 18.30±0.16 mg/100 g in fresh leaves to 11.62±0.15 mg/100 g in blanched leaves to 7.86±0.05 mg/100 g in cooked leaves respectively. A Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 23 was the statistical tool used for the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). These results showed that this plant will be a good and rich source of nutrients if it is well processed to reduce its anti-nutritional content.</p> H. M. Adamu Paidayi Gabriel Bara O. A. Ushie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-28 2020-08-28 65 73 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830213 Correlation between Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Preeclampsia <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to find the correlation between serum sodium and serum potassium with preeclampsia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>This is a cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Conducted in Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, (RIMS), Imphal (Manipur) from September 2016 to August 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Blood samples of 30 diagnosed patients of preeclampsia and above 18 years of age admitted in the obstetrics antenatal ward of RIMS, Imphal was taken. Samples were analysed for serum sodium and potassium by randox rx imola autoanalyser. The data were analyzed using statistical tools like Chi-square test through SPSS 21.0.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Serum sodium levels were high in 63.34%of study group, low levels were seen in 3.33% followed by normal levels in 33.3%of study group. Serum potassium levels were low in 56.6%of study group, normal in 40% and high in 3.33% of study group. There was positive correlation between serum sodium and proteinuria which was statistically significant at P-value &lt;0.01 and negative correlation was seen between serum potassium levels with proteinuria which was statistically significant at P-value 0.04.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In this study hypernatremia and hypokalaemia were associated with preeclampsia, and may have important causative role in this syndrome therefore constant monitoring of serum sodium and potassium level in pregnant women may help in early detection, management and prevention of preeclampsia.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Sneha Saha Yanglem Ajitkumar Singh Sangeeta Naorem Racheal Sweet Marbaniang Victoria Kshetrimayum Tina Das Potsangbam Jenny Devi Medowelie Mathew ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 74 80 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830214 Oral Acute & Sub-Chronic Toxicity Assessment of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Simarouba glauca <p>Traditional herbal medicine and their preparations have been widely used for thousands of years and are still in use in developing and developed countries owing to their medicinal values and their presumed relative safety. This belief that medicinal plants are not toxic or are with less side effect due to their natural origin is debatable; hence this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and (or) toxicity of Ethanol leaf extract of <em>Simarouba glauca </em>(EESG) on liver, kidney and heart functions of <em>Wistar</em> rats. The oral acute toxicity of EESG was evaluated in line with Lorke’s method. The sub-chronic toxicity of EESG was carried out according to the OECD guidelines with modification and using a total of twenty-four (24) male <em>Wistar</em> rats; divided into four groups of six rats each, following a two-week acclimatization. Test rats were orally administered EESG at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight respectively daily for thirty (30) days, while the control was given only feed and water <em>ad libitum</em>. At the end of the experiment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia; relevant biochemical and histopathology analyses were carried out. The data obtained from the oral acute test indicate that the <em>LD</em><sub>50</sub> was above 5000 mg/kg and there was no death recorded. There were significant increases (<em>P ˂ 0.05</em>) in percentage (%) body weight of rats administered respective doses of EESG. There were significant reductions (<em>P˂0.05</em>) in mean liver: body weight ratio of rats administered EESG 500 and 2000 mg/kg respectively, significant reductions (<em>P˂0.05</em>) in mean kidney: body weight ratios of rats given EESG 1000 and 2000 mg/kg respectively; significant reductions (<em>P˂0.05</em>) in mean heart: body weight ratios of test rats administered EESG 2000 mg/kg; whereas others were not significantly different (<em>P˃0.05</em>) relative to their respective control. Plasma ALT and GGT activities of rats administered respective dose of EESG were significantly reduced (<em>P˂0.05</em>); plasma ALP activities were significantly elevated (<em>P˂0.05</em>) relative to the control after 30 days. There were no significant differences (<em>P˃0.05</em>) in plasma total proteins and albumin levels. Plasma total and unconjugated bilirubin of rats administered respective dose of EESG were not significantly different (<em>P˃0.05</em>); whereas, rats given EESG recorded significant reduction in plasma conjugated bilirubin. Plasma urea was significantly elevated (<em>P˂0.05</em>) in rats administered EESG 1000 and 2000 mg/kg respectively. Test rats given EESG 500 and 1000 mg/kg respectively recorded significant elevations in plasma creatinine and rats given EESG 2000 mg/kg recorded significant decrease in plasma creatinine levels; others were not significantly different relative to the control. Plasma chloride and potassium ion levels of rats administered respective doses of EESG were not significantly different (<em>P˃0.05</em>); significant reduction (<em>P˂0.05</em>) in plasma sodium ions concentration in all group compared to the control. Plasma calcium ion levels in all group were not significantly different (<em>P˃0.05</em>); whereas there were significant reductions (<em>P˂0.05</em>) in plasma bicarbonate ion levels relative to their respective controls. Although plasma ALP activity were significantly elevated, there were no elevations in specific liver function enzymes and no visible hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, the conspicuous elevations observed in plasma urea and creatinine levels do not exclusively indicate EESG-induced organ injury. Therefore, it is suggestive that EESG was not significantly toxic to the to the liver, kidney and heart respectively and may be administered at lower doses in further studies.</p> Sammydavies E. Osagie-Eweka Noghayin E. J. Orhue Eric K. I. Omogbai Fabian O. Amaechina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 81 100 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830215 The Potential Use of Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Saliva and Urine as Biological Samples for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong><strong>: </strong>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. 80% of all dementia is due to AD. Diagnosis of AD is a difficult task, as the accurate diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of brain autopsy samples. Diagnosis of AD in living individuals can be aided by the establishment of the clinical criteria, positron emission tomography (PET) examination, and biomarkers. The study of biomarkers for diagnosis of AD could help clinicians to evaluate individuals at risk, and confirm the occurrence as well as the progression of AD in a non-invasive manner. High sensitivity and high specificity of the used markers are mandatory criteria for these biomarkers to trusted for AD diagnosis and prognosis. So, this review article aims to focus on the potential use of body fluids as a source of the biomarkers that are used for investigating patients with AD.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> In the current study, we reviewed scientific articles that discuss AD pathogenesis and diagnosis of Google Scholar database, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, and MedlinePlus with no time limitation. Moreover, we discussed the use of recently discovered biomarkers that are detected in blood, CSF, saliva, and urine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the current review, it could be concluded that in addition to the blood and cerebrospinal fluid as common biological samples for the diagnosis of AD, saliva and urine are useful potential biological samples. Moreover, both are noninvasive samples that give them priority to be used.</p> Adnan Awn Algarni Abdulhadi I. Bima Ayman Z. Elsamanoudy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 26 41 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830210