Amelioration of Cadmium Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of Wistar Rats by Combined Citrus sinensis and Manihot esculenta Leaf Extract

O. C. Orororo *

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

O. Efekemo

Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Edwin Clark University, Kiagbodo, Delta State, Nigeria.

E. G. Egbune

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

E. P. Awhin

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

O. B. Odeghe

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

E. O. Okoro

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This study investigated the ameliorative role of combined Citrus sinensis and Manihot esculenta leaf extract in Cadmium toxicity in the kidney and liver of Wistar Rats. Extracts of cassava and orange leaf were obtained using standard protocols. Twelve adult female rats (165±2g) divided into 3 groups were treated as follows: Group 1 (Control group): given only normal rat feed and drinking water; Group 2 (Cd group (received): given a Cd (30mg/kg body weight) orally on first day and normal rat feed and water for the remaining days; Group 3 (Cd + combined leaf extract group): given Cd as in Group 2 above and combined extract at a dosage of 200mg/kg body weight orally everyday for14 days. They also received normal rat feed and water.  A marked reduction in alanine amino transferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the liver upon exposure to Cd with a corresponding upsurge in the activities of these enzymes in the serum was observed. In addition, Cd exposure led to significant rise in the levels of urea, creatinine and electrolytes in the serum. However there was significant amelioration in these parameters upon treatment of Cd-ingested rats with the combined leaf extract. This study showed that Cd induces hepato and nephro-toxicities in experimental animals but Manihot esculenta and Citrus sinensis leaves can be employed together in the amelioration of hepatic and neprotic injuries occasioned by Cd exposure. 

Keywords: Citrus sinensis, Manihot esculenta, cadmium-toxcity, amelioration, liver, kidney

How to Cite

Orororo, O. C., O. Efekemo, E. G. Egbune, E. P. Awhin, O. B. Odeghe, and E. O. Okoro. 2024. “Amelioration of Cadmium Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of Wistar Rats by Combined Citrus Sinensis and Manihot Esculenta Leaf Extract”. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 33 (6):71-79.


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