Mango Peels and Kernels from Selected Varieties of Côte d’ivoire are Potential Sources of Antioxidative Bioactive Compounds
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review,
Aims: This study aimed to quantify the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of mango peels and kernels from two main varieties (Kent, Keitt) cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire.
Study Design: Processing of mango varieties, determination of bioactive compounds content of mango peels and kernels, evaluation of antioxidant activity of mango peels and kernels.
Place and Duration of Study: Felix Houphouet-Boigny University, Biotechnology Laboratory (March to September 2019).
Methodology: Ripe mango (Mangifera indica L) fruits from Kent and Keitt varieties were processed to obtain peels and kernels powders. Methanolic extracts of peels and kernels were used to determine the content of phenolics, flavonoids and tanins while hexanic extracts were used to determine the content of carotenoids and phytosterols. DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing power tests were used to evaluate antioxidant activity of peels and kernels.
Results: Total phenolics content of kernels of Kent (4371.22 ± 24.98 mg/100g dw) and Keitt (4037.93 ± 20.43 mg/100g dw) were higher (P ˂ 0.05) than those of peels from the two varieties (2564.37 – 3082.07 mg/100g dw). The values for carotenoids content of peels varied from 37.53 to 57.74 μg/g dw while those of kernels varied from 1.48 to 3.46 μg/g dw. Based on DPPH test The IC50 values ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 mg/mL with the highest antioxidant activity reported for kernels from Kent variety. The absorbance at 700 nm was found to be 0.4 for kernel of Keitt variety and 0.3 for ascorbic acid at a dose level of 0.03 mg/mL.
Conclusion: Peels and kernels from Kent and Keitt varieties are potential sources of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tanins, carotenoids and phytosterols. These valuable bioactive compounds in mango by-products may have greater application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
- bioactive compounds
- antioxidant activity
How to Cite
Skyes. Holiday market review; 2018. Retrieved from www.sykescottages.co.uk. The mango in Côte d’Ivoire; 2018. Available:https://www.fruitrop.com/en/Articles-by-subject/Full-country-profile/2018/mangoRCI
Lemmens L, Tchuenche ES, van Loey AM, Hendrickx ME. Beta-carotene isomerisation in mango puree as influenced by thermal processing and high-pressure homogenisation. Eur. Food Res. Technol. Springer; 2013;236:155– 63. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-012-1872-y
Rincon A, Kerr Wl. Influence of osmotic dehydration, ripeness and frozen storage on physicochemical properties of Mango. J. Food Process. Preserv. 2010;34:887–903. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2009.00404.x.
Siddiq M, Akhtar S, Siddiq R. Mango processing, products and nutrition. Trop. Subtrop. Fruits. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. 2012;277–97. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118324097.ch15.
Rojas R, Alvarez-Pérez OB, Contreras-Esquivel JC, Vicente A, Flores A, Sandoval J, et al. Valorisation of mango peels: extraction of pectin and antioxidant and antifungal polyphenols. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2020;11:89–98. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-018-0433-4
Sana BO, Ivi J, Rajeev B. Bioactives from agri-food wastes: Present insights and future challenges. Molecules. 2020;25: 510. Available:https://doi.org/doi:10.3390/molecules25030510.
Ramasamy M, Ramesh PT. Composting of mango wastes. Biotica Research Today. 2020;2:C1034-1035.
Athiappan M, Srinivasan S, Anandan R, Rajaram J. Novel process of ellagic acid synthesis from waste generated from mango pulp processing industries. Emerg. Technol. Environ. Bioremediation; 2020. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-819860-5.00020-1
Asif A, Farooq U, Akram K, Hayat Z, Shafi A, Sarfraz F, et al. Therapeutic potentials of bioactive compounds from mango fruit wastes. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2016; 53:102–12. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.05.004.
Ellong EN, Adenet S, Rochefort K. physicochemical, nutritional, organoleptic characteristics and food applications of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties. Food Nutr. Sci. 2015;6:242–53. Available:https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2015.62025.
Ajila CM, Naidu KA, Bhat SG, Rao UJSP. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of mango peel extract. Food Chem. 2007;105:982–8. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.04.052
Lebaka VR, Wee YJ, Ye W, Korivi M. Nutritional composition and bioactive compounds in three different parts of mango fruit. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2021;18:1–20. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020741
Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. Academic Press; 1999;299:152–78. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1.
Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 1999;64: 555–9. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2
Broadhurst RB, Jones WT. Analysis of condensed tannins using acidified vanillin. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1978;29:788–94. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740290908.
Howe JA, Tanumihardjo SA. Carotenoid-biofortified maize maintains adequate vitamin a status in mongolian gerbils. J. Nutr. 2006;136:2562–7. Available:https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/136/10/2562/4746697
Araújo LBDC, Silva SL, Galvão MAM, Ferreira MRA, Araújo EL, Randau KP, et al. Total phytosterol content in drug materials and extracts from roots of Acanthospermum hispidum by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Brazilian J. Pharmacogn; 2013;23:736–42. Available:https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2013000500004.
Choi CW, Kim SC, Hwang SS, Choi BK, Ahn HJ, Lee MY, et al. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity between korean medicinal plants and flavonoids by assay-guided comparison. Plant Sci. 2002;163:1161–8. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(02)00332-1.
Yen GC, Chen HY. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J. Agric. Food Chem. American Chemical Society. 1995;43:27–32. Available:https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00049a007.
El Makawy AI, Ashoush IS, Abd-Elmoneim OM. Evaluation of mango byproduct extracts as antioxidant against Pb-acetate-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in mice. Polish J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2015;65: 39–47. Available:https://doi.org/10.1515/pjfns-2015-0009.
Tokas J, Punia H, Baloda S, Rn S. Mango peel: A potential source of bioactive compounds and phytochemicals. Austin Food Sci. 2020;5:1–7.
Manthey JA, Penelope PV. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:10825– 30. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf902606h.
Jahurul MHA, Zaidul ISM, Ghafoor K, Al-juhaimi FY, Nyam K, Norulaini NAN, et al. Mango ( Mangifera indica L .) by-products and their valuable components: A review. Food Chem. 2015;183:173– 80. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.046.
Chung YC, Chang CT, Chao WW, Lin CF, Chou ST. Antioxidative activity and safety of the 50% ethanolic extract from red bean fermented by Bacillus subtilis IMR-NK1. J Agric Food Chem; 2002;50:2454–8. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf011369q.
Abstract View: 27 times
PDF Download: 11 times