Serum Copper and Serum Zinc in Preeclampsia: Cause or Effect?

Main Article Content

Anjum A. K. Sayyed
Alka N. Sontakke


Background: Preeclampsia is multisystem disorder. Despite its prevalence and severity, the pathophysiology of this multisystem disorder is poorly understood. In concern regarding the increasing number of preeclamptic cases and lack of data about the levels of trace elements in preeclampsia, a case-control study was conducted with aim to determine the trace elements like serum total copper and serum total zinc in preeclampsia.

Aims: To estimate alterations in serum copper and serum zinc in preeclampsia and to compare them with normal pregnant women.

Study Design: This is a case control study, carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, MIMER Medical College, Talegaon Dabhade, Pune.

Methods: The present study consisted of 120 study participants. These were divided into two groups. Group I - normal pregnant women as control (n=60) and Group II - preeclamptic group (n=60). The serum levels of copper and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP- AES) technique at IIT Mumbai.

Results: Analysis revealed that mean values of total serum copper and total serum zinc were 196.20 ± 25.9 and 77.15 ± 14.5 (µg/dl) respectively in control group. In preeclamptic group, the mean values of copper and zinc were 213.13± 38.6 and 76.23 ± 13.13 (µg/dl) respectively. Copper was significantly increased in preeclamptic group, while non-significant reduction in levels of zinc levels was observed when compared to control group.

Conclusion: In the present study, significantly high serum copper was observed in preeclamptic patients. Presence of high copper levels may be related factor in the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. Estimation of trace elements like copper and zinc may help clinicians in early diagnosis and minimizing or delaying complications of preeclampsia, hence preventing harm to both mother & fetus.

Copper, zinc, preeclampsia, ICP- AES.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sayyed, A. A. K., & Sontakke, A. N. (2020). Serum Copper and Serum Zinc in Preeclampsia: Cause or Effect?. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 29(9), 52-57.
Original Research Article


Cunningham J, Leveno FG, Bloom KJ, Spong SL, Dashe CY, Hoffman J, Casey B, Sheffield B. Chapter 40: Hypertensive Disoders, in Williams text book of Obstetrics, 24th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers. 2014;728–779.

Bargale P, Ganu AB, Trivedi JV, Mudaraddi DJ, Kamble R. Serum Superoxide Dismutase and Paraoxonase1 Activity in Preeclampsia Patients, Int. J. Pharma Bio Sci. Res., 2011;2(4):705–709.

National health portal, India; 2016. Available: obstetrics/preeclampsia (Accessed on 1st Jun 2015). Kahhale M, Francisco S, Zugaib RP. Chapter 44: Endothelial mechanisms in preeclampsia, in endothelium and cardiovascular diseases:Vascular Biology and Clinical Syndromes, Academic Press. 2018;655–664.

Many A, Hubel CA, Fisher S, Roberts J, Zhou Y. Invasive cytotrophoblasts manifest evidence of oxidative stress in preeclampsia, Am. J. Pathol. 2000;156(1): 321–331.

Saha S et al., Correlation between serum sodium and potassium levels in preeclampsia, Int. J. Biochem. Res. Rev. 2020;29(8):74–80.

Pathak P, Kapil U. Role of trace elements zinc copper and magnesium during pregnancy and its outcome, Indian J. Pediatr. 2004;71(11):1003–1005.

Liu J, Yang H, Shi H, Shen C. Blood copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium levels during different duration of pregnancy in Chinese, Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;135:31–37.

Meera R, Maitra KS, Hemalatha S. Increased level of lipid peroxidation in preeclamptic pregnancy: a relationship with paraoxanase 1 (PON1) activity, Biomed. Res. 2010;21(4).

Thompson J, Walsh M. Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, Blackie; 1989.

Taylor J, Davidge RN, Roberts ST. Chapter 9 : Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress, in Chesley’s hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, 3rd ed., USA: Elsevier publication. 2009;143–167.

Walker LR, Rattigan M, Canterino J. Case report a case of isolated elevated copper levels during pregnancy. J. Pregnancy. 2012;2011:3–6.

Mistry HD et al., Association between maternal micronutrient status, oxidative stress, and common genetic variants in antioxidant enzymes at 15 weeks׳ gestation in nulliparous women who subsequently develop preeclampsia, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2015;78:147–155.

Shenkin T, Baines A, Fell M, Lyon GS. Chapter 30 Vitamins and Trace elements, in Tietz, Text Book of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostic, 4th Ed., New Delhi India: Saunders An Imprint of Elsevier. 2006;1075–1164.

Sarwar IM, Ahmed MS, Ullah S, Kabir MS, Rahman H, Hasnat GM. A comparative study of serum zinc, copper, manganese and iron in preeclamptic pregnant women, Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;154:14–20.

Song D, Li X, Li B, Wang Z, Zhang J. High serum copper level is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia in Asians: A meta analysis, Nutr. Res. 2017;39:14–24.

Fan Y, Kang Y, Zhang M. A meta-analysis of copper level and risk of preeclampsia : evidence from 12 publications, Biosci. Rep. 2016;1–6.

Naithani M, Bharadwaj J, Garg A. Study of relation between serum iron and copper levels in pregnant females of Uttarakhand, India, Acta Medica Int. 2016;3(1):83–88.

Noor N, Jahan N, Sultana N. Serum copper and plasma protein status in preterm delivery, J. Bangladesh Soc. Physiol. 2012;7(2):66–71.

Robert R, Daryl M, Peter G, Victor M. Chapter 50 : Plasma proteins & immunoglobulins, in Harper’s illustrated biochemistry, 26 ed., R. Victor W, Ed. New York: Lange Medical Publications/ The McGraw Hill Companies. 2003;580–588.

Gayathri M, Vasanthan B, Vinodhini V. A correlation of zinc and copper levels with blood pressure in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia, Int. J. Clin. Biochem. Res. 2019;6(1):53–55.

Lewandowska M, Sajdak S, Marciniak W, Lubiński J. First trimester serum copper or zinc levels and risk of pregnancy induced hypertension, Nutrients. 2019;11(10):2479.

Muna M, Sirazi FZ, Majumder AS, Serajuddin M, Debnath K, Hossain BC. Status of serum copper and zinc in preeclampsia,” Bangladesh J Med Biochem. 2015;8(2):59–54.

Serdar O, Gur Z, Develioglu E. Serum iron and copper status and oxidative stress in severe and mild preeclampsia, Cell Biochem. Funct. 2006;24(3):209–215.

Patogenezinde P et al., Role of maternal oxidative Stress, iron/zinc, copper/zinc ratios and trace element levels in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, Sak. Tıp Derg. 2017;7(1):26–32.

Biswas S, Roy A, Biswas S. Comparative study of copper, zinc, iron, ferritin, calcium and magnesium levels in pregnancy induced hypertension and normotensive primigravida mothers, Int. J. Res. Med. Sci. 2016;4(6):1879–1883.

Samir D, Dalal D, Noura A. Effect of routine iron supplementation on copper level and oxidative stress status in pregnant women, Asian Pacific J. Reprod. 2020;9(2):64–69.

De Moraes ML et al., Maternal fetal distribution of calcium, iron, copper and zinc in pregnant teenagers and adults, Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2011;139(2):126-136.

Krachler M, Rossipal E. Trace element transfer from the mother to the newborn - investigations on triplets of colostrum, maternal and umbilical cord sera, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999;53:486–494.

Young T, Downey G, Maheshwari MB, Nicholl DJ. A cupric pregnancy - thirteenth time lucky, JRSM Short Rep. 2010;1(6):1–2.

Ashraf Z, Salam M, Nasarullah A, Khurshid M, Ahmed R. Maternal serum zinc concentration in Gravidae suffering from preeclampsia, A. P. M. C. 2007;1(1):24–27.

Bassiouni B, Foda A, Rafei A. Maternal and fetal plasma zinc in preeclampsia, Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 1979;9(2):75–80.

Lou N, SG, Amirabi A, Yazdian M Pashapour. Evaluation of serum calcium, magnesium, copper and zinc levels in women with preeclampsia, Iran J Med Sci. 2008;33(4):231–234.

Kanagal D, Rajesh A, Rao K, Shetty H, Shetty P, Ullal H. Zinc and copper levels in preeclampsia: A study from coastal South India, Int. J. Reprod. Contraception, Obstet. Gynecol. 2014;3(2):370.