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Microsporium, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton are asexual fungi usually called dermatophytes. They are known to cause a kind of skin diseases called dermatophytosis. There have been reported cases of resistance by the dermatophytes with prolonged usage of synthetic antifungals on the skin. The aim of this study was to formulate herbal antifungal cream containing extract of Mitracarpus villosus as an anti-dermatophytic preparation and evaluate its physicochemical properties, stability and efficacy of the product. The formulated creams containing 0.5, 1 and 2% w/w of extract were subjected to stability tests using temperature variation method at -10, 4, 30, 37 and 45oC. Freeze-thaw test, Centrifuge test, pH and exposure to UV light test were also carried out using standard method. Efficacy of the cream formulations were determined using Wistar rats as experimental animals.
The percentage yield of the extract was (2.1%). Percentage ethanol phytochemical composition indicated that for alkaloid it is 1.06±0.04%, saponins (0.96±0.07%), flavonoids (0.06±0.02%) and tannins (0.04±0.01%). The emulsion produced was an oil-in-water emulsion and had a white colour with pH of 7.02, spread of emulsion, rubbing-in effect and stability to centrifugation was very high. The antifungal results showed the activity against the dermatophytes to be in the increasing order Epidermophyton floccosum (9 mm) <Microsporum audounii (12 mm) <Trichophyton mentagrophtes (13 mm) <M. furfur (12 mm).Temperature stability and Centrifuge testing indicated that the formulations were stable. Light testing indicated no change in the colour of the products. Animal studies evaluation of the formulations of the cream indicated that their efficacy against the dermatophytes is concentration dependent and is in the increasing order M. audounii (34 µm) = E. floccosum (34 µm) <T. mentagrophyte (35 µm) <M. furfur (45 µm) which shows that 2% Mitracarpus villosus cream was statistically significant (P<0.05) against all the test microorganisms.
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