The Proximate Composition and Anti-nutritive Content of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Leaves

Main Article Content

H. M. Adamu
Paidayi Gabriel Bara
O. A. Ushie


The nutritional composition, mineral content as well as anti-nutritional of Tree spinach (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaves were investigated using standard methods. The results of the investigation showed the presence of moisture to be 5.64±0.30%, ash- 9.27±0.16%, crude protein- 8.43±0.34%, crude lipid- 4.43±0.16%, crude fibre- 16.73±0.20%, carbohydrate- 55.50% and calorific value- 276.04%. The Mineral elements determined were calcium- 1.48±0.12 mg/100 g, phosphorus- 0.18±0.03 mg/100 g. Compounds or substances which acts to reduce nutrients intake, intake digestion, absorption and utilization and may cause adverse effects are referred to as anti-nutrients or anti-nutritional factors. The anti-nutritive content of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius was classified into three categories; fresh leaves, blanched leaves and cooked leaves which decreased significantly. The anti-nutritional content includes; oxalate- which decreased from 62.71±0.21 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 40.07±0.09 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 30.04±0.05 mg/100 g in cooked leaves. Phytate- which decreased from 77.17±1.84 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 62.02±0.16 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 28.64±0.88 mg/100 g in cooked leaves. Hydrogen cyanide- decreased significantly from 171.22±0.44 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 113.00±0.08 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 0.00ab in cooked leaves. Boiling increased the saponin content to 220.30±0.47 mg/100 g in cooked leaves from 218.50±0.50 mg/100 g in fresh leaves and 218.50±0.50 mg/100 g in blanched leaves. Tannins- decreased significantly from 18.30±0.16 mg/100 g in fresh leaves to 11.62±0.15 mg/100 g in blanched leaves to 7.86±0.05 mg/100 g in cooked leaves respectively. A Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 23 was the statistical tool used for the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). These results showed that this plant will be a good and rich source of nutrients if it is well processed to reduce its anti-nutritional content.

Nutritional composition, anti-nutritional factor, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius

Article Details

How to Cite
Adamu, H. M., Bara, P. G., & Ushie, O. A. (2020). The Proximate Composition and Anti-nutritive Content of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Leaves. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 29(8), 65-73.
Original Research Article


Chima CE, Igyor MA. Micro nutrients and anti-nutrient content of selected tropical vegetables grown in South east Nigeria. Nig. Food J. 2007;25(1):111-116.

A.O.A.C. Official methods of Analysis. Association Official Analysis Chemists, 15thEdition.Washington D.C. USA. 1990; 807-928.

Abiodun OA, Adepeju AB. Effect of processing on the chemical, pasting and anti-nutritional composition of Bambara nut (Vigna subterranean L. Verde). Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;3(4):224-227.

Adanlawo A, Dairo F. nutrition status of some Nigeria green vegetables. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2006;3:2-3.

Badifu Gabriel IO. Food potential of some unconventional oilseeds grown in Nigeria – A brief review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1993;43(3):211-24.

Belmar R, Nava-montero R, Sandoval-Castro C, McNab JM. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.DS) in poultry diets: Anti-nutritional factors and detoxification studies-a review. World Poult. Sci. J. 1999;55:37-59.

Kuti JO, Kuti HO. Proximate composition and mineral content of two edible species of cnidoscolus (tree spinach). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1999;53:275-283.

Cheeke PR, Shull LR. Tannins and polyphenolic compounds in: Natural Toxicant in Feeds and SPoisions Plants. AVI Publishing Company, USA. 1985;40.

Habtamu Fekadu, Negussie Rata. Antnutritional factors in plant foods: Potential health benefits and adverse effects. International Journal of Nutrition and food sciences. 2014;3(4):284-289.

Khare SK. Application of immobilized enzymes in soyabean processing and utilization conference (ISPCRC III): 2000 of the Innovation Era for soyabeans; 2000.

Paudey M, Abidi AB, Singh Singh RPI. Nutritional evaluation of leafy vegetables paratha. Journal Human Ecology. 2006; 19(2):155-156.

Osagie AU. Antinutritional factors. In: Nutritional Quality of Plant Foods. Ambik press Ltd, Benin City, Nigeria, 1998;1-40: 221-244.

Akande KE, Doma UD, Agu HO, Adamu HM. Major antinutrients found in plant protein sources: Their effect on nutrition. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2010;9(8): 827-832.

Join collection development policy. Human nutrition and food US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health; 2014.

Cheeke PR. Nutritional and physiological implications of saponins: A review Can. J. Anim. Sci. 1971;51:621-623.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cyanide, Emergency Preparedness and Response. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Services: Atlanta, GA; 2004.

Fasuyi AO, Aleto VA. Vanetals composition and functional properties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Grant) leaf meal and leaf protein concentrate Pak. J. Nutri. 2005;4(1):43-49.

Fasuyi OA. Nutriional potentials of some tropical vegetables leafs meals: Chemical characterization and functional properties. African Journal Biotechnology. 2006;5(1): 49-53.

Akindahunsi AA, Salawa SO. Phytochemical screening of nutrients and antinutrient composition of selected tropical green leafy vegetables. Afr. J. Biotehcnol. 2005;4(6):497-501.

Binta R, Khetarpaul N. Probiotic fermentation: Effect on anti-nutrients and digestibility of starch and protein of indigenous developed food mixture. J. Nutri. Health. 1997;139-147.

Aletor VA, Adeogun OA. Nutrients and antinutrients components of some tropical leafy vegetables. Food Chem. 1995;54(4): 375-379.

FAO/WWHO. Fats, oils and related product. Food Standard Program. Codex Ailment Anus Commission. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. World Health Organization, Rome. 1993;8:33-35.

Fagbohun ED, Egbebi AO, Lawal OV. Phytochemical screen in, proximate analysis and in-vitro antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of C. aconitifolius leaves. Int J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 2012; 13(1):28-33.

Mordi JC, Akenji MA. Phytochemical screening of the dried leaf extract of C. aconitifolius and associated changes in liver enzymes induced by its administration in wistar rats. Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci. 2012;4(2):153- 158.

Oyagbemi AA, Odetola AA. Hepatotropical effects of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Pak. J. Biol. Science. 2010;13:164-169.

Atuahene CC, Poku-Prempeh B, Twun G, The nutritive values of Chaya leaf meal (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) studies with broilers chickens. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1999;77:163-172.

Idris S, Iyaka YA, Ndamitso MM, Paiko YB. Nutrtional composition of the leaves and stems of Ocimum gratissimum. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Science. 2011;2(5):801- 805.

Abolaji OA, Adebayo AN, Odesanmi OS. Nutritional qualities of three medicinal plants; Xylopia aethiopica, Blighia csapida and Parinari polyandra. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2007;6:665-668.

Ali A. Proximate and mineral composition of the marchubeh (Asparagus officinalis). Watd Diary and Food Science. 2009;4(2): 142-149.

Antia S, Akpan EJ, Okon PA, Umoren IU. Nutritive and antinutritive evaluation of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batata) leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2006;5(2): 166-168.

Isong E, Idiong. Nutrient content of the edible leaves of seven wild plants from Nigeria. Plant food for human nutrition. 1997;51:79-84.

Ishida H, Suzuno H, Sugiyama N, Innami S, Todokoro T, Maekawa A. Nutritional evaluation of chemical component of leaves stalks and stems of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batataspoir). Food Chemistry. 2000;68:359-367.

Adebooye OC. Proximate composition and nutrient analysis of six selected leafy vegetables of South West Nigeria. Ife Journal of Agriculture. 1996;18(1&2):56-63.

Oduse KA, Idowu MA, Adegbite AA. Chemical and phytochemical profiles of some uncommon green leafy vegetables consumed in south west, Nigeria. 10SRJ. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol. 2012; 1(3):22-26.

Gupta S, Lakshmi AJ, Manjunath MN, Prakash J. Analysis of nutrient and antinutrient content of underutilized green leafy vegetables. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2004;38:339-345.

Sheetal G, Jyothi LA, Manjunath MN, Jamuna P. Analysis of nutrient and antinutrient content of underutilized green leafy vegetable. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2004;30(4):339-345.

Mullaney EJ, Ullah AHJ. Phytases attribute catalytic mechanism and applications. United State Department of Agriculture. Agric. Res. Ser; 2012.


Asquith TN, Butter LG. Interaction of condensed tannin with selected proteins Phytochemistry. 1986;25(7):1591- 1593.