Impact of Illegal Crude Oil Refining in Jike-ama River of Bille Kingdom, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Nwachoko, Ndidi
Davies, Bekinbo
Tetam, Jack Gbenenee


Oil exploration and exploitation is a lucrative business and one of the major sources of revenue in Nigeria. Each year, hundreds of post-impact assessment (PIA) studies are conducted to assess the impact of the hazards generated by the oil industry on social environment and on human health. This hazardous impact is the associated with the activities of illegal refining of crude oil. Thus, this work examined the impact of illegal crude oil refining activities in Jike-Ama river of Jike-Ama community. Shellfish, fish, surface water and sediment samples were randomly collected in triplicates. Physiochemical parameters, heavy metal content, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total hydrocarbon content of the water in addition to heavy metal content and PAHs in fish, Shellfish and sediment were determined. The results of the physicochemical parameters showed that pH, total suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, turbidity and total hydrocarbon content of water were above FEPA permissible limits while chloride, nitrate and sulphate detected in water were within FEPA permissible limits. Dissolved oxygen was observed to be below FEPA permissible limit. The mean concentration of heavy metals and PAHs in sediment showed significant difference (p<0.05) when compared with values for Shellfish and fish and were above FEPA and WHO permissible limits. Shellfish had higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs than fish. PAHs values in shellfish showed significant difference (p<0.05). Heavy metals concentration in fish were above permissible limits except Cr, Zn and Pb. Concentration of PAHs in fish, shellfish, surface water and sediment were generally above FEPA and WHO permissible limits. This findings suggests high concentration of contaminants in Jike-Ama river.

Crude oil spillage, fish, shellfish, physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, PAHs, sediment

Article Details

How to Cite
Ndidi, N., Bekinbo, D., & Gbenenee, T. J. (2020). Impact of Illegal Crude Oil Refining in Jike-ama River of Bille Kingdom, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 29(6), 46-51.
Original Research Article


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