Impact of Illegal Crude Oil Refining in Jike-ama River of Bille Kingdom, Rivers State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Nwachoko, Ndidi
Davies, Bekinbo
Tetam, Jack Gbenenee

Abstract

Oil exploration and exploitation is a lucrative business and one of the major sources of revenue in Nigeria. Each year, hundreds of post-impact assessment (PIA) studies are conducted to assess the impact of the hazards generated by the oil industry on social environment and on human health. This hazardous impact is the associated with the activities of illegal refining of crude oil. Thus, this work examined the impact of illegal crude oil refining activities in Jike-Ama river of Jike-Ama community. Shellfish, fish, surface water and sediment samples were randomly collected in triplicates. Physiochemical parameters, heavy metal content, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total hydrocarbon content of the water in addition to heavy metal content and PAHs in fish, Shellfish and sediment were determined. The results of the physicochemical parameters showed that pH, total suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, turbidity and total hydrocarbon content of water were above FEPA permissible limits while chloride, nitrate and sulphate detected in water were within FEPA permissible limits. Dissolved oxygen was observed to be below FEPA permissible limit. The mean concentration of heavy metals and PAHs in sediment showed significant difference (p<0.05) when compared with values for Shellfish and fish and were above FEPA and WHO permissible limits. Shellfish had higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs than fish. PAHs values in shellfish showed significant difference (p<0.05). Heavy metals concentration in fish were above permissible limits except Cr, Zn and Pb. Concentration of PAHs in fish, shellfish, surface water and sediment were generally above FEPA and WHO permissible limits. This findings suggests high concentration of contaminants in Jike-Ama river.

Keywords:
Crude oil spillage, fish, shellfish, physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, PAHs, sediment

Article Details

How to Cite
Ndidi, N., Bekinbo, D., & Gbenenee, T. J. (2020). Impact of Illegal Crude Oil Refining in Jike-ama River of Bille Kingdom, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 29(6), 46-51. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i630195
Section
Original Research Article

References

Arimoro FO. Impact of rubber effluent discharges on the water quality and macro invertebrate community assemblages in a forest stream in the Niger Delta. Chemosphere. 2009;77(440-449).

Alina B. Pollution facts and types of pollution; 2018.

(Retrieved January 29, 2019)

Available:www.livescience.com: www.livescience.com/22728-pollution-facts.html

Ogbuagu DH, Okoli CG, Gilbert CL. Determination of the contamination of groundwater sources in Okrika mainland with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). British Journal of Environment & Climate Change. 2011;1(2):90-103.

El-Deeb MK, Emarm HI. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic plasticizer materials in the seawater of Alexandria coastal area. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Resources. 2005;31(1):25-24.

Martens DA, Frankenberger JT. Enhanced degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil treated with an advanced oxidative process—fenton‘s reagent. Journal of Soil Contamination. 1995;4(175-190).

Decker JC. Potential health hazards of toxic residues in sludge. In sludge-health risk of land application. Ann. Arbon. Sci. Publ. Inc. 1997;85-102.

UNEP. Environmental assessment of ogoniland. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme; 2011.

APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed Washington American Public Health Association; 1998.

Okerenta. Impact of crude oil spillage on water and African Catfish (Clarias garierinus) in Uzere, Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. European Journal of Earth and Environment. 2017;4(1):7-10.

Aderinola OJ, Clark EO, Olarinmoye OM, Kusemiju V, Amate MA. Heavy metals in surface water, sediments fish and shellfishs Lagos Lagoon. American, Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environment Science. 2009;5(5):566-617.

Alami R, Drouillard K, Olayynka K, Aleo B. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Invertibrates of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Ttrends in Engineering and Applied sciences (JETEAS). 2012;3(2):287-296.