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The study was conducted to investigate the modulatory activity of ethanol extract of neem leaf on the essential biochemical parameters of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The 24-hour acute toxicity test of the orally administered ethanol extract was determined using Finney’s method. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg/kgbw of streptozotocin (STZ). Blood was collected after 28 days of treatment and used for biochemical analysis. Biochemical analysis was done using standard biochemical methods. The acute toxicity study of the ethanol extract reveal that the median lethal dose was 5.0 g/kg body weight. The anti-diabetic study carried out for a period of 28 days showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels of the animals treated with ethanol extract compared with the diabetic untreated rats. The urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in the diabetic untreated rats compared with the groups treated with the ethanol extract of neem leaf. The serum alpha-amylase activity of the treatment groups decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the diabetic untreated group. The diabetic untreated rats showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in their insulin level compared with the insulin levels of animals treated with the ethanol extract of neem leaf. The ethanol extract of neem leaf is efficacious in lowering blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic rats by regenerating the beta cells integrity which was seen from the increase in the insulin level of the extract treated rats. It modulates the essential biochemical parameters of diabetic rats favourably towards recovery and improved health.
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