Main Article Content
Introduction: Glycemic index is an important parameter designed to quantify the relative blood glucose response of foods in comparison with reference glucose. Determination of glycemic index and loads of carbohydrate- rich foods play as tools of nutritional guidelines for glycemic control and to reduce the risk of diabetic complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine glycemic index and glycemic loads of cassava and sweet potato of commonly consumed food items of Bench-Maji, south west Ethiopia.
Materials and Methods: The 23 healthy subjects were participated in the study from Ethiopia; the mean age was 27 ± 2 years. The matured cassava and sweet potato food items were processed by washed, peeled and cooked in water (gentle boiling at 90 Co) for 20 minutes. Participants were informed to consume 50 g of carbohydrate portions of tested and reference foods. Blood sample were collected at 0 (fasting), 30, 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion of tested and reference foods. Glycemic index value of foods was calculated from the ratio of incremental area under the glucose curves of the foods. Glycemic loads for each food was determined from its glycemic index value and carbohydrate content. Data were statistically analysed by ANOVA and differences between means identified by the student t-test.
Results: The cassava and sweet potato had a medium glycemic indices (GI: 60), in spite of they generated a high glycemic loads of 26 and 24 respectively. The cassava and sweet potato had significantly lower (p<0.0001) blood glucose response was noticed as compared to white bread. There was no difference of GI and GL of tested foods within the participants and statistically not significant (p>0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that the cassava and sweet potato foods had a medium glycemic index and high glycemic loads. The tested foods had significantly lower blood glucose response as compared to reference food of white bread. The resulted GI and GL data of tested foods could be help as guide of food choices to control glycemic level and to reduce the risk of diabetic complications.
Foster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand–Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:5-56.
Chlup R, Bartek J, Reznickova M, Zapletalova J, Doubravova B, Chlupova L, Seckar P, Dvorackova S, Simanek V. Determination of the glycaemic index of selected foods (White bread and cereal bars) in healthy persons. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Republic. 2004;148:17-25.
Wolever TM, Bolognesi S. Time of day influences relative glycemic effect of goods nutrition. Nutr Res. 1996;165(3):149-155.
Camille Adam Kouamé, etal. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected staples based on rice, yam and cassava commonly consumed in Côte d’Ivoire. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2014;5(4).
Shamil Alo, Abebe, Gezahegn, Wakjira Getachew. Study on adaptability and acceptability of released cassava varieties at Teppi, South Western Ethiopia, Academic Journal of Nutrition. 2017;6(1): 24-27.
Aweke Kebede, Beka Teshome, Asrat Wondimu, Adamu Belay, Birhanu Wodajo, Aynalem Lakew. Detoxification and consumption of cassava based foods in South West Ethiopia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2012;11(3):237-242.
Southern Nationalities and Peoples Region, Bureau of Agriculture (SNNPR, BoA). Basic Agricultural Information Planning and programming Service, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2000.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and STAT. Statistical data base of the organization of the United Nations; 2009.
Bovell-Benjamin AC. Sweet potato: A review of its past, present, and future role in human nutrition. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 2007;52:1–59.
Abdissa T, Chali A, Tolessa K, Tadese F, Awas G. Yield and yield components of sweet potato as influenced by plant density: In Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha District, Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2011; 870-884.
Belehu T. Agronomical and physiological factors affecting growth, development and yield of sweet potato in Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria); 2003.
Made Astawana and Sri Widowatib. Evaluation of nutrition and glycemic index of sweet potatoes and its appropriate processing to hypoglycemic foods, Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science. 2011;12(1):40-46.
Rajinder Chawla, Tarek H. El-Metwally. A comprehensive text book of medical biochemistry. Unitedindia Periodical Pvt Ltd. 2012;25-229.
Burtis CA, Ashwood ER. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry. Fourth ed. WB Saundesrs Co Philadelphia. 2006;235.
International Diabetes Federation, IDF Diabetes Atlas, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium, 5th edition; 2011.
Canadian Diabetes Association: Clinical practice guidelines; 2008.
Alemu F. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus disease and its association with level of education among adult patients attending at Dilla Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. J Diabetes Metab. 2015;6:521.
Mathewos Geneto, Melaku Umeta, Tedla Kebede, Aklilu Azazh, Ravi Nagphaul, Salahuddin Farooq Mohammed. A comparative study on serum level concentration of micronutrients like zinc, copper and chromium status in type 2 diabetic patients in diabetes & endocrinology unit, Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences. 2015;5: 95-102.
American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care. Supplement January. 2012;35.
Perceval S, et al. Relationship between processing method and the glycemic indices of ten sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly consumed in Jamaica. Journal of Nutritional Metabolism. 2011:1-14 .
Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: Physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease. J Am Med Assoc. 2002;287:2414–2423.
Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Franceschi S, Hamidi M, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Axelsen M. Glycemic index: Overview of implications in health and disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002;76:266S-273S.
Wolever TMS, Vorster HH, Björck I, et al. Determination of the glycaemic index of foods: Inter-laboratory study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003;57(3): 475–482.
Karim Parastouei, Mohammad Esmaiel shahaboddin, Mitra Motalebi, Seyyed Mehdi Mirhashemi, Ali Mohammad Faraji and Fariba Seyyed.. Academic Journals Scientific Research and Essays. 2011; 6(25):5302-5307.
Farukh Tabassum, Alam Khan, Iftikhar Alam, Niamatullah, Saleem Khan, Imran Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Zafar, Kalsoom Qureshi, Mahpara Safdar, Zia ud Din. Determination of glycemic indices and glycemic loads of various types of cereal foods. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 2013;8 (6):493-497.
AOAC. Method of Analysis. Association of Official nalytical Chemistry (AOAC), Washington, D.C; 2006.
Brouns F, Bjorck I, Frayn KN, Gibbs AL, Lang V, Slama G, et al. Glycemic index methodology. Nutr Res Rev. 2005;18:145– 171.
Jonathan C. Allen, Alexis D. Corbitt, Katherine P. Maloney, Masood S. Butt, Van-Den Truong. Glycemic index of sweet potato as affected by cooking methods. The Open Nutrition Journal. 2012;6:1-11.
Brand-Miller J, et al. The new glucose revolution: The authoritative guide to the glycemic index - The dietary solution for lifelong health. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marlowe. 2003;77(4):993-995.
Omoregie ES, Osagie AU. Glycemic indices and glycemic load of some Nigerian foods. Pak. J. Nutr. 2008;7:710–716.
Wolever TMS. The glycaemic index: A physiological classification of dietary carbohydrate, Biddles Ltd, King’s Lynn Ed, UK. 2006;227.
Mendosa R. Revised International Table of Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL). 2008;127.
Adam C. Kouamé, Kouakou N. Kouassi, Yao D. N’dri, N’guessan G. Amani. Glycemic index and load values tested in normoglycemic adults for five staple foodstuffs: Pounded yam, pounded cassava-plantain, placali, attieke and maize meal stiff porridge. Nutrients. 2015; 7:1267-1281.