International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Biochemistry Research &amp; Review (ISSN: 2231-086X)</strong> publishes original research papers, review articles and short communications on all areas of Biochemistry.&nbsp;This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed,&nbsp;open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 2231-086X Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Prediabetes <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Prediabetes is associated with dysglycemia, endothelial dysfunction, obesity and inflammation, placing them at an increased risk of cardiovascular events.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The present study aimed to investigate the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with prediabetes by estimation of serum interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase and urine microalbumin and their correlation with fasting plasma glucose and anthropometric measurements.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Study was conducted at Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College Hospitals, Mangaluru between 2014 and 2015.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Eighty subjects were categorised into prediabetes and healthy controls based on their fasting plasma glucose values. Anthropometric data (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio from all subjects were recorded. Interleukin-6 &amp; myeloperoxidase were estimated in serum sample whereas microalbumin was estimated in random urine sample.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular disease risk markers (interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase and urine microalbumin) were found to be significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) in prediabetes group. Myeloperoxidase had significant correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r-0.388) in the prediabetes group. Interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase also showed a positive correlation with body mass index (r - 0.339, r - 0.327), waist circumference (r - 484, r - 0.493) and waist-to-hip ratio (r - 0.430, r - 0.493) while urine microalbumin did not correlate with fasting plasma glucose and anthropometric measurements in prediabetes group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study suggests that prediabetes is associated with central adiposity and have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.</p> Ashish Agarwal Anupama Hegde Afzal Ahmad Charu Yadav Poornima A. Manjrekar M. S. Rukmini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-19 2020-03-19 1 8 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230166 Effect of the Garcinia kola Seed on Glycemia, Creatininemia and Aminotransferases in Adult Subjects <p><strong>Background:</strong> The administration of extracts of <em>Garcinia kola</em> seed to experimental rats has a hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Assess the effect of daily consumption of <em>Garcinia kola</em> seed on glycemia, creatinine and serum aminotransferases among adult subjects.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We carried out an intervention study based on quasi-experimental approach during three months i.e. from May 1 to July 30, 2019. A sample consisting of 40 adult subjects (18 men, 22 women) had participated to the study after their written consent and approval by the institutional ethics committee. After the baseline testing which consists of fasting glycemia, creatininemia, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), each subject consumed one <em>Garcinia kola</em> seed per day during 90 days. Then, every 30 days, the same testing was performed. Glycemia was determined by endpoint colometric method for assaying enzyme using glucose oxidase; creatinine by colometric kinetic assay using the JAFFE reagent; and aminotransferases by UV enzyme kinetics. Student’s t test helped compare the mean values of the parameters determined at the beginning and at the end of the experiment at the threshold of 5%.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean values at the beginning and at the end of the experiment were glycemia in g/L (0.81± 0.20 vs 0.84 ± 0.14), creatininemia in mg/L (9.36 ± 2.44 vs 8.01 ± 2.15), ALAT in UI/L (27.19 ± 15.77 vs 25.60 ± 12.45) and ASAT in UI/L (28.46 ± 11.52 vs 23.30 ± 8.48). A significant decrease of creatininemia and ASAT was observed (p = .010 and .025 respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The consumption of the <em>Garcinia kola</em> seed has a nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effect.</p> Moutawakilou Gomina Tarik Salifou Gilbert Djidonou Stanislas Zinsou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 25 32 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230169 Phytochemical and Phytomineral Status of Spigelia anthelmia Linn Leaves <p><strong>Aims: </strong><em>Spigelia anthelmia </em>is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of diverse diseases and contain plant-based natural bio-active constituents.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Phytochemical and mineral analysis of <em>Spigelia anthelmia</em> leaves using standard analytical procedures.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, between May 2019 and July 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Phytochemical and phytomineral status of <em>Spigelia anthelmia </em>leaves were investigated using standard analytical procedures. Phytochemicals screening/analysis examined include; alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, tannin, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannin and terpenoids. The atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine the minerals which are calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu), while flame photometer was used in determining potassium (K) and sodium (Na). Data were presented using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Result indicates the presence of phytochemicals in the leaves of <em>S. anthelmia</em>, the quantitative analysis shows: alkaloid (2.34mg/100g), flavonoid (6.13mg/100g), saponin (18.12mg/100g), tannin (9.61mg/100g), phenol (4.61mg/100g), cardiac glycosides (1.89mg/100g), terpenoids (0.98mg/100g) and phlobatannin (0.32mg/100g). The macro elements reveals Na (0.022%), K (0.23%), Ca (0.48%), Mg (0.15%), P (0.035%), while the micro element shows that Fe (0.19%), Mn (0.003%), Cu (0.001%), Zn (0.004%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The result suggests that <em>S. anthelmia</em> has a strong pharmacological prowess and could be used in the prevention and treatment of various health-related diseases.</p> O. L. Awotedu P. O. Ogunbamowo O. S. Ariwoola E. P. Chukwudebe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 33 40 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230170 Physiological Basis of Memory Dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease – An Overview <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neuro-degenerative disease, causing gradual decline in memory function in the affected patients. The loss of memory makes their existence miserable. It is first noticed and reported by the patient’s care takers. The clinicians objectively assess the type and degree of the memory loss by a specific battery of tests, specially designed for the purpose (like Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test., Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE etc.)). Understanding the symptoms of AD, arising out of memory loss, requires deeper insights into what initiates the memory (the sensory inputs from the five sense organs), the different types of memories (explicit, implicit memories, their sub types and associative memory etc.), how the memory signals are modified at the level of the neuron, (analog to digital signals) and the synapse (sensitization, habituation and Long term potentiation / depression etc.), the processing that the inputs received , undergo (encoding, consolidation /organization, storage and retrieval) in higher brain centres (amygdala, hippocampus prefrontal vortex etc.) and also the role played by the various receptors (NMDA, AMPA and the kinase receptors), the neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, Norepineprine, Gama aminobutic acid, serotonin etc.), the central network systems involved (central executive network, salience network, and the default mode network). In short, it is the study all about, of the physiology of memory. The next step is to integrate this knowledge to interpret symptoms of patients with AD. Accordingly, the subject under discussion is dealt with in two parts. Firstly, how the memory is affected in AD and secondly the physiology behind these changes.</p> A. S. V. Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 9 24 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230168