Effect of Leaf Extract of Senna alata on Biochemical Indices of Wistar Rats Infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei

Main Article Content

M. A. Kugama
T. Tese
H. Sabo
T. Andrew
Y. A. Onaolapo
O. G. Allen
A. Agbo
D. W. Danjuma
A. M. Usman
L. M. Umar
P. J. Baji

Abstract

This study was aimed at determining the effect of leaves of Senna alata extract on biochemical indices of Wistar rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Phytochemical screening revealed the absence of steroids in all extracts, absence of saponins in chloroform extracts and the presence of free anthraquinones only in chloroform extract. Post-infection treatment of animals stirred the emergence of parasitaemia by Day 3. Only animals receiving 200 mg/kg b.wt. of chloroform extract survived by day 16. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in ALT for groups receiving methanol (400 mg/kg b.wt.), chloroform and aqueous extracts and significant (P<0.05) increase in unconjugated bilirubin in the group receiving methanol extract (200 mg/kg b.wt.) compared to infected not treated rats. Significant (P<0.05) decrease in potassium concentration in groups receiving methanol and chloroform, and a significant (P<0.05) increase in sodium concentration in the group receiving 400 mg/kg b.wt. of aqueous extract compared to the infected not treated rats. These results thereby demonstrate the ameliorative potential of Senna alata leaves against T. brucei brucei.

Keywords:
Trypanosomiasis, Senna alata, biochemical indices, parasitaemia, phytochemical.

Article Details

How to Cite
A. Kugama, M., Tese, T., Sabo, H., Andrew, T., A. Onaolapo, Y., G. Allen, O., Agbo, A., W. Danjuma, D., M. Usman, A., M. Umar, L., & J. Baji, P. (2020). Effect of Leaf Extract of Senna alata on Biochemical Indices of Wistar Rats Infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 29(1), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i130161
Section
Original Research Article

References

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Karthala; 1996.

Aijegoro OA, Okoh AI. Use of bioactive plant products in combination with standard antibiotics: Implications in anti-microbial chemotherapy. Journal of medicinal Plants Research. 2009;3(13): 1147-1152.

Azeizeh H, Saad B, Said O. Arab herbal medicine. Botanical medicine in clinical practice. 2008;4:31.

Atawodi SE. Antioxidant potential of African medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(2):128-133.

World Health Organization. African trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness); 2014. Available:www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs259/en

Brun R, Blum A, Chappuis F, Burri C. Human African Trypanosomiasis. The Lancet. 2010;375(9709):148-159.

Checchi F, Chappuis F, Karunakara U, Priotto G, Chandramohan D. Accuracy of five algorithms to diagnose gambiense human African trypanosomiasis. Public Library of Science Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2011;5(7):1-7.

Checchi F, Cox AP, Chappuis F, Priotto G, Chandramohan D, Haydon DT. Prevalence and under-detection of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis during mass screening sessions in Uganda and Sudan. Parasites and Vectors. 2012;5(157):1-12.

Baker N, Koning HP, Mäser P, Horn D. Drug resistance in African trypanosomiasis: The melarsoprol and pentamidine story. Trends Parasitology. 2013;29(3): 110-118.

Simbarashe C, Tanguy M, Boniface N, Peter V, Bossche VD, Vincent D. High prevalence of drug resistance in animal trypanosomes without a history of drug exposure. Public Library of Science Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012;5(12): 1-13.

Eisen L, Beaty BJ, Morrison AC, Scott TW. Proactive vector control strategies and improved monitoring and evaluation practices for dengue prevention. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2009;46(6):1245-1255.

Ali-Emmanuel N, Moudachirou M, Akakpo JA, Quetin-Leclercq J. Treatment of bovine dermatophilosis with Senna alata, lantana camara and Mitracarpus scaber leaf extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;88(2-3):167-171.

El-Mahmood AM, Doughari A. Phyto-chemical screening and antibacterial evaluation of the leave and root extracts of Cassia alata Linn. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2008;2(7): 124-129.

Ayoola GA, Coker HA, Adesegun SA, Obaweya K, Ezennia EC, Atangbayila TO. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in South Western Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7(3): 1019-1024.

Reitman S, Frankel S. Colorimetric method for aspatate and alanine aminotransferase. American Journal of Clinical and Pathology. 1957;28(1957):55-60.

Haussament TU. Quantitative determina-tion of serum alkaline phosph-atase. Clinical Chemistry Acta. 1977;55:271- 273.

Jandrassik L, Grof P. Quantitative determination of total and direct bilirubin in erum and plasma. Biochem Z. 1938;297: 81-89.

Sherlock S. The liver in heart failure relation of anatomical, functional and circulatory changes. British Heart Journal. 1951;13(3):273.

Bartels H, Bohmer M, Heierli C. Serum creatinine determination without protein precipitation. Clinica chemica acta; International Journal of Chemistry. 1972; 37:193-197.

Trinder P. Photometric determination of serum sodium. Analyst.1951;76:596.

Akinyemi KO, Coker AO, Bayagbon C, Oyefolu AOB, Akinsinde K, Omonigbehin EO. Antibacterial screening of five Nigerian Medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. J. Nig. Infect. Control. 2000;3:1-4.

Shanmugan S, Annadurai M, Rajendran K. Ethnomedicinal plants used to cure diarrhoea and dysentry in pachalur hills of Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Journal of Applied Phermaceutical Sciences. 2011;1(8):94.

Sule A, Ahmed QU, Latip J, Samah OA, Umar A, Dogarai BBS. Antifungal activity of Andrographis paniculata extracts and active principles against skin pathogenic fungal strains in vitro. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2012;50(7):850-856.

Redis RS, Calin S, Yang Y, Calin GA. Cell-to-cell miRND transfer: From body homoestasis to therapy. Pharmacology and Pharmapeutics. 2012;136(2):169-174.

Coates P. Liver function tests. Australian Family Physician. 2011;40(3):113.

Johnson DF, Fody EP. Liver function: Clinical chemistry, principles, procedures and correlation. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Company. 1992;473-478.

Moss DW, Henderson AR. Enzymes in: Tietz fundamental of clinical chemistry 4th Edition. WB Sounders Company Philadalphia.1996;288-335.

Igbokwe IO, Mohammed A. The reticulocyte response to the anaemia in goats caused by experimental Trypanosmoma brucei infection. Vetrinary Research Communications. 1991;15(5): 373-377.

Taiwo VO, Olaniyi MO, Ogunsanmi AO. Comperative plasma biochemical changes and susceptibility of erythrocytes to in vitro peroxidation during experimental Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei infection of sheep. Journal of Vetrinary Medicine. 2003;58(4): 112-117.

Erbey JR, Silberman C, Lydick E. Prevalence of abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase levels in obese patients and patients with type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Medicine. 2000; 1099(7):588-590.

Meybodi MA, Afkhami-Ardekani M, Rashida M. Prevalence of abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase levels in type 2 diabetic patients in iran. Pak Jour. Biol. Science. 2008;11(18):2274-2277.

Leeds JS, Forman EM, Morley S, Scott AR, Tesfaye S, Sanders DS. Abnormal liver function tests in patients with type 1 Diabetes mellitus: Prevalence, clinical correlations and underlying pathologies. Diabetic Medicine. 2009;26(12):1235- 1241.

Ranjna C. Practical clinical Biochemistry methods and interpretations, 2nd Ed. 1999;117.

Mayne DP. Clinical chemistry in Diagnosis and treatment .6th edd. ELBS publishers. 1994;14-317.

Ajibola ES, Oyewale JO. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and electrocardiographic indices of Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs. Sokoto Journal of Vetrinary Sciences. 2014; 12(1):36-44.

Klebar AG. Extracellular potassim ion and hydrogen ion shifts in early ischemia; Mechanism and relations to changes in impulse propagation. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 1987; 19:35-44.

Noiri E, Nakao A, Uchinda K, Tsukahara H, Ohno M, Gologorsky MS. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in acute renal ischemia. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology. 2018;34-39.

Maejima T, Ohno-Shosaku T, Kano M. Endogenous cannabinoid as a retrograde messenger from depolarised postsynaptic neurones to presynaptic terminals. Neuroscience Research. 2001;40(3):205-210.