Evaluation of Lifestyle and Some Biochemical Parameters Involved in Bone Health in Pre and Postmenopausal Cameroonian Women

Main Article Content

Gerard Nkeunen
Tsafack Takadong Julie Judith
Simo Gustave
Betrand Ayuk Tambe
Ayangma Celestin Roger
Tume Christopher Bonglavnyuy

Abstract

Aims: A healthy skeletal system with strong bones is essential to overall health. This study aimed to assess lifestyle and bone’s biomarkers of women.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The enrollment took place at the Yaounde Military Hospital from November 2016 to July 2017.

Methodology: A set of 105 postmenopausal and 127 premenopausal participants were enrolled from November 2016 to July 2017 in Yaounde. Their physical activities level was evaluated using a questionnaire. Sunlight exposure between 10:00AM and 4:00PM was assessed. Colorimetric methods were used to evaluate calcium, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma. These parameters were then compared within year since menopause (YSM) and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument (ORAI) sub-groups.

Results: 13.4% participants were moderately active. Only 22.8% participants had at least 30 minutes sun exposure daily. A multivariable analysis of demographic, lifestyle, biochemical characteristic revealed age, BMI, albumin and calcium were the main factors that influenced bone health among our participants. A significant difference of calcium concentration was found between the two groups whereas albumin was significantly higher in premenopausal than postmenopausal. Albumin was the only variable with a significant difference in the YSM sub-groups while only calcium was non-significantly higher among the ORAI sub-groups.

Conclusion: Elevated plasma level of calcium, albumin and alkaline phosphatase could be indicators of high bone turnover.

Keywords:
Bone, lifestyle, premenopausal, postmenopausal, calcium

Article Details

How to Cite
Nkeunen, G., Judith, T. T. J., Gustave, S., Tambe, B. A., Roger, A. C., & Bonglavnyuy, T. C. (2019). Evaluation of Lifestyle and Some Biochemical Parameters Involved in Bone Health in Pre and Postmenopausal Cameroonian Women. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 28(4), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430150
Section
Original Research Article

References

Benjamin MR. Bone health: Preventing osteoporosis. Public Health Reports. 2010; 125(3):368-370.

Tai V, Leung W, Grey A, Reid IR, Bolland MJ. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2015;351:h4183.

Luo CY, Wang L Sun C, Li DJ. Estrogen enhances the functions of CD+, CD25+, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells that suppress osteoclast differenciation and bone resorption in vitro. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 2011;8:50-58.

Ramsubeik K, Keuler NS, Lisa DA, Karen HE. Factors associated with calcium absorption in postmenopausal women: A post-hoc analysys of dual isotope studies. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;114(4):761- 767.

Vasikaran S, Eastell R, Bruyère O, Foldes AJ, Garnero P, Griesmache A, McClung M, Morris HA, Silverman S, Trenti T, et al. Markers of bone turnover for the prediction of fracture risk and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment: A need for international reference standards. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22:391-420.

Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Cooper C, Rizzoli R, Reginster JY. European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International. 2013;24(1):23-57.

Cavalier E, Bergmann P, Bruyère O, Delanaye P, Durnez A, Devogelaer JP, Ferrari SL, Gielen E, Goemaere S, Kaufman JM, et al. The role of biochemical of bone turnover markers in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease: A consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club. Osteoporosis International; 2016.
DOI: 10.1007/s00198-016-3561-3

Catalayud J, Borraeni S, Moya D, Colado J, Triplett T. Exercise to improve bone mineral density. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 2013;35(5):70-74.

Alghadir AH, Gabr SA, Einas Al-Eisa E. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: Socio-demographic and biochemical analysis. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(7): 2261-2270.

Sato Y, Metoki N, Iwamoto J, Satoh K. Amelioration of osteoporosis and hypovitaminosis D by sunlight exposure in stroke patients. Neurology. 2003;61:338-342.

Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjostrom M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, Pratt M, Ekelund U, Yngve A, Sallis JF, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35(8):1381-1395.

Moorehead WR, Biggs. HG 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as the alkalizing agent in an improved continuous-flow cresol-phtaleincomplexone procedure for calcium in serum. Clin Chem. 1974;20(11):1458-1460.

Daly JA, Ertingshausen G. Direct method for determining inorganic phosphate in serum with the “centrifichem”. Clin Chem. 1972;18(3):263-265.

Gamst OK, Try K. Determination of serum-phosphate without deproteinization by ultraviolet spectrophotometry of the phosphomolydic acid complex. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 1980;40:483-486.

Gindler EM, Heth DA. Estimation of serum magnesium. Clin Chem. 1971;17:662.

Khayam-Bashi H, Liu TZ, Walter V. Measurement of serum magnesium with a central analyzer. Clin Chem. 1977;23(2): 289-291.

Recommendations of the German Society for Clinical Chemistry. Standardisation of methods for the estimation of enzyme activities in biological fluids.Experimental basis for the optimized standard conditions. Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 1972;10(6):281-291.

Keiding R, Hörder M, Denmark GW, Pitkänen E, Tenhunen R, Strömme JH, Thoedorsen L, Waldenström J, Tryding N, Westlund L. Recommended methods for the determination of four enzymes in blood. Scand. J. Clin Lab. Invest. 1974;33: 291-306.

Slot C. Plasma creatinine determination a new and specific Jaffe reaction method. Scand. J. Clin Lab. Invest. 1965;17:381-387.

Cadarette SM, Jaglal SB, Kreiger N, McIssac WJ, Darlington GA, Tu JV. Development and validation of the osteoporosis risk assessment instrument to facilitate selection of women for bone densitometry. CMAJ. 2000;163(9):1289-1294.

Altman DG. Practical statistics for medical research. London, Chapman and Hall; 1991.

Schoenaker DA, Jackson CA, Rowlands JV, Mishra GD. Socioeconomic position, lifestyle factors and age at natural menopause: A systematic review and meta-analyses of studies across six continents. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2014;43(5): 1542-62.

Gold EB. The timing of the age at which natural menopause occurs. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011;38(3):425-440.

Morris DH, Jones ME, Schoemaker MJ, Ashworth A, Swerdlow AJ. Familial concordance for age at natural menopause: Results from the Breakthrough Generations Study. Menopause. 2011;18(9):956-961.

World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 1997.

Ngo Sock ET, Côté I, Mentor JS, Prud’homme D, Bergeron R, Lavoie JM. Ovariectomy stimulates hepatic fat and cholesterol accumulation in high-fat fed rats. Hormone and Metabolic Research. 2013;45(4):283-290.

Grecu EA, Fornari R, Rossi F, Santiemma V, Prossomariti G, Annoscia C, Aversa A, Brama M, Marini M, Domini LM, Spera G, Lenzi A, Lubrano C, Migliaccio S. Is obesity protective for osteoporosis? Evaluation of bone mineral density in individuals with high body mass index. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2010;64(6):817-820.

Muir JM, Ye C, Bhandari M, Adachi JD, Thabane L. The effect of regular physical activity on bone mineral density in post-menopausal women aged 75 and over: A retrospective analysis from the Canadian multicentre osteoporosis study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2013;14: 253.

Tveit M, Rosengren BE, Nilsson JA, Ehlborg HG, Karlsson MK. Bone mass following physical activity in young years: a mean 39-year prospective controlled study in men. Osteoporos In. 2013;24(4):1389-1397.

Klein-Nukend J, Van Oers RFM, Bakker AD, Bacabac RG. Bone cell mechano-sensitivity, estrogen deficiency, and osteoporosis. Journal of Biomechanics. 2015;48(5):855-865.

Di M, Liping Zhong WH. Effects of walking on the preservation of bone mineral density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Menopause. 2013;20(11):1216-1226.

Schöffl I, Kemmler W, Kladny B, Vonstengel S, Kalender WA, Engelke K. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2008; 8(4):363-374.

Larrosa M, Casado E, Gómez A, Moreno M, Berlanga, E Ramón J, Gratacós J. Vitamin D deficiency and related factors in patients with osteoporotic hip fracture. Med Clin (BARC). 2008;130(1):6-9.

Usoro CAO, Onyeukwu CU, Nsonwu AC. Biochemical bone turnover in postmenopausal women in Calabar municipality. Asian Journl of Biochemistry. 2007;2(2):130-135.

Nordin BE, Need AG, Morris HA, Horowitz M. Biochemical variables in pre- and postmenopausal women: Reconciling the calcium and estrogen hypotheses. Osteoporos Int. 1999;9(4):351-357.

Bhattarai T, Bhattacharya K, Chaudhuri P, Sengupta P. Correlation of common biochemical markers of bone turnover, serum calcium, and alkaline phosphatase in postmenopausal women. Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014;21(1): 58-61.

Mukaiyama K, Kamimura M, Uchiyama S, Nakamura Y, Kato H. Elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level in postmenopausal women is cause by high bone turnover. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2015;27(4):413-418.

Jagtap VR. Serum Total Proteins, Albumin and magnesium levels in pre and post antiresorptive therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Can magnesium play a key role in osteoporosis? Int J Biotech Bioche. 2017;13(1):23-29.

Greendale AG, Sowers M, Han W, Huang M, Finkelstein SJ, Crandall CJ, Lee JS, Karlamangla A S. Bone mineral density loss in relation to the final menstrual period in a multiethnic cohort: Results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Journal of bone and Mineral Research. 2011;27(1):111- 118.

Rogers A, Hannon RA, Eastell R. Biochemical markers as predictors of rates of bone loss after menopause J Bone Min Res. 2000;15(7):1398-1404.