Phytochemical Composition and Biochemical Studies of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Brillantaisia guianensis P. beauv on Alloxan Treated Wistar Albino Rats

Main Article Content

Kalu E. Chinedu
Eugene N. Onyeike
Catherine C. Ikewuchi

Abstract

The present study was carried out on the phytochemical composition and biochemical studies of the leaf extract of Brillantaisia guinensis peuv on alloxan treated Wistar albino rats. The experimental rats were administered with 80 mg/kg body weight of alloxan, via the tail vein. After five days treatment with alloxan, the treatment with the extracts commenced. Extracts were administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bw (both to normal and treated rats) for twenty-one days. Metformin, which served as a standard drug was administered at 50 mg/kg. Chromatographic analysis of the phytochemical content of the leaf extract, revealed the presence of flavonoids (30.7 mg/100 g), saponins (50.6 mg/100 g), phytosterol (6.22 mg/100 g), tannins (7.50 mg/100 g) and glycosides (29.3 mg/100 g). Compared to test and normal control, the extracts dose-dependently and significantly lowered (P<0.05) plasma glucose and triglycerides, during the experimental period. This study revealed the presence of pharmacologically bioactive compounds in the leaf extract and showed that the leaf extract had a dose-dependent hypoglycemic and  hypotriglyceridemic effect on the Wistar albino rats. The findings suggest a likely protective role of the extracts against hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia thereby useful in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus, obesity and other related cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords:
Brillantaisia guianensis P. beauv, hypoglycaemic, hypotriglyceridemia, phytochemicals, alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus.

Article Details

How to Cite
E. Chinedu, K., N. Onyeike, E., & C. Ikewuchi, C. (2019). Phytochemical Composition and Biochemical Studies of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Brillantaisia guianensis P. beauv on Alloxan Treated Wistar Albino Rats. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 27(4), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i430129
Section
Original Research Article

References

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):11-61.

Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of medical physiology. 11th Edition. Elsevier Inc; 2006.

World Health Organization. About diabetes. World Health Organization. WHO diabetes fact sheet No.312014; 2014.
(Retrieved on: April 4, 2014)

NDIC. Monogenic Forms Of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus And Maturity-Onset Diabetes Of The Young. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH; 2008.

World Health Organization. Diabetes action now: An initiative of the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation. Geneva: WHO; 2004.

Nwenwe EA, Osarelin JO, Anele EI, Aaron Ojule, Seye Babatunde. Type 2 diabetes prevalence in adult Nigerian: A study of its prevalence and risk factors in Port Harcourt Nigeria. Journal of Diabetes. 2003;(10);10-16.

Chijioke A, Adama AN, Makusid AM. Mortality pattern among diabetes patient in Ilorin, Nigeria. Journal of Endocrinology. Metabolism and Diabtes of South Africa. 2010;(15):2.

Ogbera AO, Chinenye S, Onyekwere A, Fasande O. Prognostic indices of diabetes mortality. Ethnicity & Diseases. 2007;17(4): 721-725.

Nwafor A, Owhoji A. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Nigeria in Port Harcourt correlates with socio-economic status. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2010;5(1):75-77.

Kamboj VP. Herbal medicine. Current Science. 2000;78:35-51.

Acuff RV, Cai DJ, Dong ZP, Bell D. The lipid lowering effect of plant sterol ester capsules in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipids Health Diseases. 2007; 16;6:1.

Bailey CJ, Day C. Traditional plant medicines as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1989;12:553-64.

Burkil HM. The Useful Plants of West tropical Africa. Volume1 ed. Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew, UK; 1985.

Adjanohoun JE, Aboubarkar N, Dramane NN. Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Cameroun. Center National de Producastiondes manuels. Scolaire, Benin. 1986;19.

Matheus ME, Berrondo BF, Viestas EC. Evaluation of the antinoceptive properties from Brillantaissia palisolli Lindau stem extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005;102(30):377-381.

Mtopi OS, Dimo T, Nguelefack TB. Dzeufiet Recakotonirina SV, Kamtchouing P. Effect of Brillantaissia nitens Lindau (Acanthacceae) methanechloride /metahnol leaf extracts on rat arterial blood pressue heart rat. Pharmacology Online. 2007;1:495-510.

Dimo T, Mtopi OS, Nguelefack T, Kamtchoung P. Vasorelaxant effect of Brillantaissia nitens Lindau (Acanthacceae) extracts on isolated rat vascular smooth muscle. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;111(1):104-109.

Akah PA, Christian EO, Adaobi CE. The haematinic actvities of the methanol leaf extracts of Brillantaissia nitens Lindau (Acanthaceae) in rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(10):2389-2393.

Burkett HM. The useful plants of west tropical African. Royal Botanic Gardens. New England; 1968.

Kalu EC, Onyeike EN, Ikewuchi CC. Nutrient composition of Brillantaisia guinensis P. Beuv leaves. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review. 2019;27(3);1-12.

Millogo-Kone H, Lompo M, Kini F, Asimi S, Guissou IP, Nacoulma O. Evaluation of flavonoids and total phenolic contents of stem bark and leaves of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. (Mimosaceae)-free radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;3(2):70-74.

Luthar Z. Polyphenol classification and tannin content of buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Fagopyrum. 1992;12:36–42.

Guo M, Zhang L, Liu Z. Analysis of saponins from leaves of Aralia elata by liquid chromatography and multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Science. 2009;25(6):53-758.

AOAC International. Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC (W. Horwitiz, Editor). 18th edition. AOAC International: Washington DC, USA; 2006.

Radwan MA. Enhancement of absorption of insulin-loaded polyisobutylcyanoacrylate nanospheres by sodium cholate after oral and subcutaneous administration in diabetic rats. Drug Development Industry Pharmacy. 2001;27;383-91.

Burcelin R, Eddouks M, Maury J, Kande J, Assan R, Girard J. Excessive glucose production, rather than insulin resistance, account for hyperglycemia in recent onset streptozocin-diabetic rats. Diabetology. 1995;385:283-90.

Zhou T, Luo D, Li X, Luo Y. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoids from louts (Belumbo nuficera Gaertn) leaf in diabetic mice. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2009;3(40);290-293.

Jyoti M, Vihas TV, Ravikumar A, Sarita, G. Glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale. Blume in diabetes: a possible mechanism of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;81: 317-20.

Guardia T, Rotelli AE, Juarez AO, Pelzer LE. Anti-inflammatory properties of plant flavonoids. Effects of rutin, quercetin and hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat. Farmaco. 2001;56(9):683-687.

Egert S, Bosy-Westphal A, Seiberl J. Quercetin reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-cardiovascular disease risk phenotype: A double blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. British Journal of Nutrition. 2009;102(7):1065-1074.

Soetan KO. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of antinutritional factors in plants. A review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7:4713–4721.

Liu F, Kim J, Li Y, Liu X, Li J, Chen X. An extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. has insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:2242-7.

Basu SK, Thomas JE, Acharya SN. Prospects for growth in global nutraceutical and functional food markets: A Canadian perspective. Australian Journal of Basic Applied Science. 2007;1:637–649.

Hemalatha R. Anti-hepatotoxic and anti-oxidant defense potential of Tridax procumbens. International Journal of Green Pharmacolgy. 2008;2:1.

Liu J, Sempos C, Donahue R, Dorn J, Trevisan M, Grundy SM. Joint distribution of non-HDL and LDL cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk prediction among individuals with and without diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015a;28:1916–1921.

Liu X, Kim JK, Li J, Liu F, Chen X. Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-LI cells. Journal of Nutrition. 2005b;135:165-171.

Muthusamy VS, Anand S, Sangeetha KN, Sujatha S. Lakshmi. Tannins present in Cichorium intybus enhance glucose up- take and inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-Ladipocytes through PTP1B inhibition. Chemical and Biology Interaction. 2008; 174:69-78.

Pereira DM, Valentão P, Pereira JA, Andrade PB. Phenolics. From chemistry to biology. Molecules. 2009;14:2202-11.

Ivorra MD, D‟Ocon MP, Paya M, Villar A. Antihyperglycemic and insulin-releasing effects of ß-sitosterol 3-ß-D-Glucoside and its aglycone, ß-sitosterol. Arch Intern Pharmacodyn Therapy. 1988;296: 224-31.

Charkravarthy BK, Gupta S, Gode KD. Functional B-cells regeneration in the islet of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (-) epicatechin. Life Science. 1982;31: 2693-2697

Ong KC, Kobo HE. Insulinomimetic effects of myricetin on lipogenesis and glucose transport in rat adipocytes but not glucose transporter translocation. Biochemical Pharmacology. 1996;51:423-429.

Vessal M, Hemmati M, Vasei M. Anti-diabetic efects of quuerctin in streptozocin -induced diabetic rats. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology. 2003;135:357-364.

De- Sousa E, Zanatta L, Seifriz I, Creczski-pasa TB, Pizzolatti MO, Szpoganiaz B, Silvia FR. Hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant potential of kaepferol-3, 7-O-(alpha)-dirrhamnoside from Bauhinia forficta leaves. Journal of Natural Product. 2004;67;829-832.

Jung UJ, Lee MK, Jeong KS, Choi MS. The hypoglycemic effects of hesperidin and narigenin are partly mediated by hepatic glucose- regulating enzymes in C57BL/Ksj-db/bd mice. Journal of Nutrition. 2004;134:2499-2503.

Lee JS. Effects of soya protein and genistein on blood glucose, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Life Sciences. 2006;13:1578-1174.

Panda S, Kar A. Apigenin (4',5,7 trihydroxyflavone) regulates hyperglycaemia, thyroid dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. 2007;59:1543-1548.

Kappers IF, Aharoni A, Van Herpen T, Luckerhoff L, Dicke M, Bouwmeeste HJ. Genetic engineering of terpenoid metabolism attracts bodyguards to Arabidopsi. Science. 2005;309: S10-S19.

McBride PE. Triglycerides and risk for coronary heart disease. Journal of American Medical Association. 2007;268 (3):336-338.

Martirostyan DM, Miroshnichenko LA, Kulokawa SN, Pogojeva AV, Zoloedov VI. Amaranth oil application for heart disease and hypertension. Lipids in Health & Disease. 2007;6:11-18.

Lopes FH, Bernardes Silva H, Soares JA, Filho B, Consolim-Colombo FM, Giorgi DMA. Lipid metabolism alterations in normotensive subjects with positive family history of hypertension. Hypertension. 1997;30: 629-31.