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Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders among women at reproductive age and is characterized by infertility, hirsutism, obesity, insulin resistance, and menstrual irregularities. Leptin, an adipocyte derived hormone, serves as a link relaying metabolic signals to the neuronal networks in the brain to modulate hypothalamo-pituitary- ovarian axis. Circulating leptin correlates strongly with obesity, which is frequently associated with PCOS. PCOS is associated with hyperandrogenemia and relatively high estrogen levels, which could stimulate prolactin secretion.
Aims: 1. To assess serum leptin and prolactin in women with PCOS and to compare them with healthy women as controls. 2. To correlate the leptin, prolactin and body mass index (BMI) among a group of PCOS women and healthy women as controls.
Methodology: The study was conducted at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences & Hospital, Bangalore. A comparative study was conducted which includes 30 women who has diagnosed with PCOS and 30 healthy women with as controls. The age group for the study was 18 to 35 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and prolactin. BMI was also calculated. Interpretation of data was done using SPSS version 13.
Results: Significant positive correlations between leptin levels and BMI in cases and controls (ρ= 0.683, p < 0.001; ρ= 0.485, p = 0.007 respectively) were observed. Mean BMI, leptin and prolactin were found elevated in the PCOS women compared to controls but they were not statistically significant. No significant correlation was found between leptin and prolactin.
Conclusion: Leptin levels were correlated with BMI both in PCOS women and in the healthy controls. Leptin may not have a direct role in the pathogenesis of PCOS, as the serum levels were not significantly higher in PCOS women and did not correlate with prolactin.
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