Antibacterial Activity of Locally Prepared Herbal Cough Extracts against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Main Article Content

Atuheirwe Maxine
Jacob Stanley Iramiot


Aim: Cough due to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae is currently managed by conventional antibiotics and herbal extracts in Uganda. However, much as these herbal extracts are extensively used, their antibacterial activity is not known. This study aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of the selected locally prepared herbal cough extracts against two bacterial strains i.e. Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619).

Methods: The herbal cough extracts were screened for antibacterial activity using Agar-well diffusion method for determining zone of inhibition, macro broth dilution method for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination and Streak plate method for Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC).

Results: In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of the 5 brands of herbal cough extracts against K. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae   revealed that all extracts possessed significant antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested (p < 0.05). However, MM04 (35.6±0.0) mm and MM03 (33.6±1.5) mm had maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts against K. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae respectively. Average MIC results for extracts against K. pneumoniae   indicated that MM01 had the highest MIC (2.5000 mg/ml) while MM03 had the least MIC (0.0625 mg/ml). Average MIC results for extracts against S. pneumoniae showed MM01 had the highest MIC (2.0000 mg/ml) while MM03 3 had the least MIC (0.0438 mg/ml). Average MBC results for extracts against K. pneumoniae indicated that MM01 had the highest MBC (4.000 mg/ml) while MM03 had the least MBC (0.030 mg/ml). Average MBC results for extracts against S. pneumoniae showed MM01 had the highest MBC (4.000 mg/ml) while MM03 had the least MBC (0.033 mg/ml).

Conclusion: The results obtained in present study were revealed that locally prepared herbal extracts had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antibiotics used against Respiratory Tract Infections due to K. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae.

Antibacterial activity, herbal cough extracts, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumonia, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration

Article Details

How to Cite
Maxine, A., & Iramiot, J. S. (2019). Antibacterial Activity of Locally Prepared Herbal Cough Extracts against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 26(2), 1-9.
Original Research Article


Ranganathan Sarath C, Samatha Sonnappa. Pneumonia and other respiratory infections. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2009;56(1):135-156.

Mohammad Reza Boloursaz, Ferial Lotfian, Farahnaz Aghahosseini, Ali Cheraghvandi, Soheila Khalilzadeh, Ali Farjah, et al. Epidemiology of lower respiratory tract infections in children. J. Compr. Pediatr. 2013;4(2):93-8.

Helmut H Albrecht, Can Big Data Analyses Help Speed Up the Clinical Development of Mucoactive Drugs for Symptomatic RTIs? Lung. 2016;194(1):31-34.

Antoni Torres Marti, Elbio Mariano Esperatti. Community-acquired pneumo-nia, in Respiratory infections. CRC Press. 2016;110-128.

Suganthi P. The antimicrobial activity of pargularia daemia leaves extract against bacterial pathogens isolated urinary tract infections; 2017.

Elzagallaai AA, Greff MJ, Rieder MJ. Adverse drug reactions in children: The double‐edged sword of therapeutics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017;101(6):725-735.

Malish John Peter. A Critical Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Healthcare System in Uganda, 1987 to 2015. SSRN Electronic Journal; 2017.

Munabi-Babigumira Susan, Claire Glenton, Merlin Willcox, Harriet Nabudere. Ugandan health workers’ and mothers’ views and experiences of the quality of maternity care and the use of informal solutions: A qualitative study. PloS One. 2019;14(3): e0213511.

Walugembe Joel, Jacob S Iramiot, Esther Katuura. Indigenous knowledge and antibacterial activity of selected herbs used locally to treat common cold in Central Uganda. J Med Plant Res. 2016;10:520-28.

Tracy AA, Bhatia SK, Ramadurai KW. Bio-Based Materials as Applicable, Accessible, and Affordable Healthcare Solutions. Springer; 2018.

Mithöfer A, Maffei ME. General mechanisms of plant defense and plant toxins. Plant Toxins. 2017;3-24.

Kapusta-Duch Joanna, Kopec A, Piatkowska E, Barbara Borczak, Leszczynska T. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012;63(4).

Elena Chan, Marisela Tan, Jianni Xin, Sucha Sudarsanam, Dale E Johnson. Interactions between traditional Chinese medicines and Western. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2010;13(1):50-65.

Haidan Yuan, Qianqian Ma, Li Ye, Guangchun Piao. The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. 2016;21(5):559.

Mukeshwar Pandey, Mousumi Debnath, Shobit Gupta, Surender K Chikara. Phytomedicine: An ancient approach turning into future potential source of therapeutics. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2011;3(1):113-117.

Daniel A Dias, Sylvia Urban, Ute Roessner. A historical overview of natural products in drug discovery. Metabolites. 2012;2(2):303-336.

Tabuti John RS, Collins B Kukunda, Daniel Kaweesi, Ossy MJ Kasilo. Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2012; 8(1):35.

Kakudidi Esezah, Claude Kirimuhuzya, Godwin Anywar, Esther Katuura, and Juliet Kiguli, Medicinal Plants Used in the Management of Noncommunicable Diseases in Uganda, Springer. 2016;397-418.

Sameer Shaikh, H Bin Yaacob, Haji Abdul Rahim Z. Prospective role in treatment of major illnesses and potential benefits as a safe insecticide and natural food preservative of mint (Mentha spp.): A review. AJBPS. 2014;4:1-12.

Nurul Diana Dzaraly, Nor Iza A Rahman, Nordin Bin Simbak, Suhaimi Ab Wahab, Omar Osman, Salwani Ismail, et al., Patterns of communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pilgrims during Hajj. Res J Pharm Technol. 2014; 7(9):12.

Natarajan D, John Britto S, Srinivasan K, Nagamurugan N, Mohanasundari C, Perumal G. Anti-bacterial activity of Euphorbia fusiformis—A rare medicinal herb. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102(1):123-126.

Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Luviksha Drushilla Muthoorah. An ethnopharmaco-logical survey of natural remedies used by the Chinese community in Mauritius. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4:S387-S399.

Katherine A Hammer, Christine F Carson, and Thomas V Riley, Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol. 1999;86(6):985-990.

Jaqueline Ngo Maleguel Epse Kamdem, Coaggregation and Biofilm Formation by Bacteria Isolated from Chronic Wounds. University of Wales; 2010.

Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan, Maryam Zahin, Sameena Hasan, Fohad Mabood Husain, and Iqbal Ahmad, Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009; 49(3):354-360.

Geidam YA, AG Ambali, Onyeyili PA. Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial evaluation of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf. 2007; 7(4):511-514.
DOI: 10.3923/jas.2007.511.514.

Shanmugam Hemaiswarya, Anil Kumar Kruthiventi, Mukesh Doble. Synergism between natural products and antibiotics against infectious diseases. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(8):639-652.

Adebayo-Tayo BC, Adegoke AA. Phytochemical and microbial screening of herbal remedies in Akwa Ibom State, South Southern Nigeria. J Med Plant Res. 2008;2(11):306-310.