Proximate and Phytochemical Profile of Melanthera biflora Leaves

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E. C. Kalu
C. C. Ikewuchi
E. O. Ayalogu
K. T. Nwauche


The proximate and phytochemical composition of Melanthera biflora was investigated, using standard methods. From the obtained results the leaves had high moisture contents (71.1± 0.2%) and crude fiber (3.91 ± 0.5) while containing moderate protein (7.0 ± 0.03%), while containing lipid (1.10 ± 4%), ash (2.8 ± 0.2%), total carbohydrate (6.09 ± 0.2%) and caloric value (62.26±0.14 kcal/100g). Eleven Phytochemical families were detected with tannin as the most abundant (27.82%) consisting 100% tannic acid. Thirteen alkaloids (13.65%) were detected consisting mainly of morphine (28.05%), methylmorphine (16.22%), dephnoline (12.02%) biflorin, (20.63%), aromoline (12.61%) homoaromaline (7.79%). Twenty-three flavonoid (5.71%) chief among which were quercetin (44.21%), kaemferol (28.94%), dandzein (7.20%), letuolin (10.17%), salvagenin (6.76%), sinensetin 8.20% were detected. The most prominent of the ten carotenoids (2.48%), is lutein (40.76%), followed by carotene (17.90%), malvidin 5.63%, zeaxanthin (16.5%), viola-xanthin (9.5%). Sixty one terpenoid including linalool (40.98%), germacrene (12.74%), Alpha-terpineal 6.40%, terpinen – 4-01 (5.62%), and Gamma terpine were found in the leaves Of the six phenolic acids (16.26%) the highest was ferulic acid (53.94%), followed closely by vanilic acid (45.8%). Seven phytosterol (2.25%), consisting of sitosterol (65.3%), savenasterol (14.19%) stigmasterol (12.70%), and others were detected. The leaves had very a low hydroxycinnamic acid content (8.93x10-4%) content, consisting of eight known compounds of which caffeic acid (71.93%) and p-coumaric acid (27.91%) were the most abundant. They also had very a low allicins (1.94x10-4%) content, consisting of daillylthiosulphunate (97.05%), and methyl thiosulphinate (2.6%) and allylthiosulphin and allylthiosulphinate (0.3%). The leaves had a very low content of glycosides consisting of eight known compounds of which quabain (78.54%) were detected and they include gitogenin (22.04%), diosgenin (20.02), neohegen (20.79%). Their rich contents of nutrients and many bioactive molecules suggest strong nutraceutical potential of these leaves, further suggesting their likely use as functional a food and therapeutic uses in the management and prevention of diseases.

Proximate, phytochemical, vegetable

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Kalu, E. C., Ikewuchi, C. C., Ayalogu, E. O., & Nwauche, K. T. (2019). Proximate and Phytochemical Profile of Melanthera biflora Leaves. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 25(4), 1-12.
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