Main Article Content
Aims: To determine prevalence of hypertension among adolescent students and prognosis of associated dysfunction on specific organ function among adolescent students.
Study Design: A cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Three senior high schools (SHS) in Ashanti region of Ghana, namely Anglican SHS, Konongo Odumase SHS and Bonwire SHS, between October 2016 and March 2017.
Methodology: A multi-stage sampling method was used to select 909 adolescents from the three SHS. Participants were screened for elevated blood pressure. A total of 142 participants had high blood pressure and were used for this study. Anthropometries; body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), visceral fat (VF), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure levels were measured with recommended instruments and biochemical and haematological parameters were assessed. Sociodemographic data were taken with questionnaire.
Results: Out of 909 adolescent students, the prevalence of high blood pressure from first screening was 9.1%. However, upon second screening from those with high blood pressure from the first screening, prevalent rate for high blood pressure had declined to 1.21%. Hypertension was higher in males (10.7%), compared to females (4.5%, P= 0.658). There were no significant differences between BMI (P= 0.847), %BF (P= 0.501), VF (P= 0.195), WC (P= 0.450) among hypertensive, pre-hypertensive and normotensive participants. There was no significant mean difference between urea (P= 0.236), creatinine (P= 0.995), serum sodium (P= 0.126), serum chloride (P= 0.516), serum potassium (P= 0.878) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P= 0.397) and blood pressure status. Total cholesterol (P= 0.765), triglycerides (P= 0.381), HDL (P= 0.777) and LDL (P= 0.768) was not significantly associated with blood pressure status.
Conclusions: Participants had high blood pressure level. Despite the prevalence of high blood pressure among adolescent population, it had no impact to cause any dysfunction in kidney, cardiovascular and liver. Hence, appropriate diet and lifestyle management are needed to prevent early and/or future complication of hypertension among adolescents.